21.Customshouse brokers are another name for
international freight forwarders.
22.From the shipperâ€™s perspective, a non-vessel operating
common carrier (NVOCC) is a carrier; from an ocean carrierâ€™s perspective, an
NVOCC is a shipper.
23.Non-vessel operating common carriers are not allowed
to enter into contract arrangements with individual shippers.
24.Export trading companies represent U.S. manufacturers
and help them find overseas firms that can be licensed to manufacture their
25.Export packers custom pack shipments when the exporter
lacks the equipment or expertise to do so itself.
26.International transportation cannot be effective or
efficient without fairly identical handling equipment being in place at each
end of the trip.
27.Much of the worldâ€™s shipping tonnage is used for
carrying agricultural products.
28.Load centers refer to major ports where thousands of
containers arrive and depart each week.
29.In terms of necessary contract provisions, ocean
shippers view guaranteed ship space as the most important factor.
30.Shipping conferences refer to annual meetings of large
international shippers .
31.Some water carriers are engaged in a new type of
alliance in which carriers retain their individual identities but cooperate in
some areas of operations.
32.Ocean carrier alliances provide two primary benefits
to participating members, namely, the sharing of vessel space and lower rates.
33.The three types of international airfreight operations
are chartered aircraft, scheduled air carriers, and integrated carriers.
34.The schedules and routes of international air carriers
are established by the International Air Transport Association.
35.UPS and FedEx are examples of integrated air carriers.
36.Drayage refers to ocean shipping, often along a
regionâ€™s coast, rather than across oceans.
37.Short sea shipping is unlikely to become a more common
transportation option in the U.S. until highway driving speeds decrease to
about 35 miles per hour .
38.An inventory held in one nation may not necessarily
serve the needs of markets in neighboring nations .
39.Return items are virtually impossible to accommodate
in an international distribution system.
40.Inventory valuation on an international scale is
difficult because the value of various currencies continually change.