Getting started (review)
- Choosing topicsâ€”ethical, legal, appropriate for classroom, interesting
- Purposeâ€”inform, persuade, engage audience to accomplish goal
EX. To inform the audience about the ingredients and process for making sweet grain bars.
- Thesis statementâ€”concise statement summarizing main ideas
EX. There are six ingredients necessary and 4 steps to follow to make sweet grain bars.
Once you have your focus, think and create/ make content decisions. . .
Start with Body of speech (main ideas)
Each main point should be clearly indicated and you should support/explain it.
(a good speech is like a pencilâ€”it needs to have a point)
If you list your main points and it is more than 2-3, probably have some subordinate ideas listed also.
See choosing main points from list of all points exercise (preparing for backpacking trip)
Traditional organizational formats:
Review from book
Chronologicalâ€”time (past, present, future)
Spatialâ€”geographical layout, directional pattern (golf club has grip, shaft, head; earthâ€™s atmosphere has troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere/all outer layers)
Causalâ€”cause and effect
Topicalâ€”enumeration of most important aspects, no interrelationship (duties of President of US)
How could these topics be organized?
How the solar system is designedâ€”spatial
Required courses for degree in communicationâ€”topical, chron
How hurricanes are formedâ€”causal, chron
How human nervous system worksâ€”spatial, topical, causal
See critical thinking exercises photocopy to practice identifying patterns
EX. Create two different speeches for the topic of â€œmusicâ€ using 2 different patterns
Startling statement (similarities except ex con = prison life)
Rhetorical question (how would you feel if. . .)
Quotation (Neil Armstrong and space program)
Humorâ€”be very careful
Reason to listen (more than â€˜significanceâ€)
Relevant to audience
Ex. what is the relevance to this audience of cultural impact of gambling, soap operas, illiteracy)
NEXT, write reason to listen for your own topic.
Establish credibilityâ€”what are your qualifications? Why should we listen to you?
Preview main pointsâ€”list them
Review main pointsâ€”repeat them
Reason to rememberâ€”what should the audience â€œtake awayâ€
Peroration–tie back to attention-getterâ€”psychological closure
Pattern worksheets exercise shows value of revealing organization
During presentationâ€”make organization clear through structure! Easier to comprehend presentation, we can â€œtrackâ€ with information.
How? Transitionsâ€”summarize previous, introduce next
Indicate relationship between ideas such as series, contrast, consequence, part-whole
Preview/review, signpostsâ€”one or two words like â€œnextâ€, â€œfirstâ€
Tool for making and recording these decisionsâ€”outlining!!
Tool to structure speech on paper, make content decisions, and start practicing presentation=preparation outline.
Not for my benefit but yoursâ€”start with outline! Document your decisions
2 typesâ€”speaking outline (notes) and preparation outline.
Â· Speaking outline= notecard
o One, white, 3×5, one-side, card
Â· Preparation outline
o Full content/ full sentence
4 principles of outlining (see worksheet): define then apply
1. Subordinationâ€”prioritizing importance and detail level of content, explanations are subordinate to main IDEAS, want balance
2. Symbolsâ€”system to follow, each symbol indicates one idea/point, use letters, not bullets to help organize sequence of ideas
3. Indentationâ€”visual tool
4. Parallelismâ€”clarity, wording the same to check location/organization
Principles in action
Sample outline n library sections to fit statements into pre-set outline structure
As you are thinking and creating content decisions, also consider presentation aidsâ€¦