Research draft

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The final research proposal is a combination of the Literature Review and Methodology assignments in one paper. The guidelines for the research proposal are as follows:

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SEMINAR PAPER METHODOLOGY 4


Seminar Paper Methodology

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


Seminar Paper Methodology

Design

Experimental design refers to the way participants are located within different groups of experiments. In this research study, the researcher will use repeated measures experimental research design as a methodology. Repeated measures are an experimental design where the same participants take part in every condition of the independent variable. Therefore, every condition in the experiment will use a similar set of participants. This type of experimental design is also known as the within-group or subject design with the advantage of reduced participant variables. More so, it requires fewer people to take part hence, time-saving.

Variables

The research study has both independent and dependent variables. The independent variable, in this case, is the level of preparedness of CLS students towards their future goals and career. In contrast, the dependent variable is their confidence or perceptions towards their future goals and careers.

Participants

In this study, the research will select participants enrolled in junior and senior CLS programs within the university. There are inclusion and exclusion criteria for each of the participants;

i. Inclusion criteria: must be enrolled into the junior or senior CLS program within the specified institution.

ii. Exclusion criteria: persons not enrolled in junior or senior CLS program within the specified institution.

Controls

A control group is separated from the entire experiment to avoid independent variables from affecting the results. Therefore, control groups isolate the effects of independent variables on the experiment, hence, can help rule out the alternative explanation of the study results. In this case, the control group will be other students enrolled in other curriculum programs other than CLS. The control group will not receive any treatments or manipulated variables. Therefore, no ethical issue will arise during the study.

Sampling

In this study, the research will use the simple random sampling method in selecting participants. This is a great probability method of sampling that is time-saving and uses fewer resources. It is reliable when used to obtain information because each participant is randomly selected. The research study will use a slightly larger sample size to maximize the results. There will be 60 experimental samples versus 20 participants in the control group.

Validity and reliability

The researcher in this study will ensure the experiment’s validity by thoroughly researching and basing the findings on existing knowledge. More so, the researcher’s conclusions will be accurately generalized to the population of participants. Similarly, reliability will be ensured through the tools and techniques used in the data collection process. Thus, the researcher will ensure that the results are precise, stable, and producible by carefully planning the methods and ensuring each measurement’s relevant steps.

Data collection technique

This research will utilize various data collection techniques, including observation, use of questionnaires, and interviews. The researcher will observe the experimental group and the control groups notice any changes in their level of preparedness towards their future goals and careers. The researcher will directly administer questionnaires to the participants and wait for their responses. Lastly, the participants will take part in interviews with the help of interviewers to interpret the questions.

Research ethics

Participation in this research study is completely voluntary. This will be indicated on the consent form, allowing participants to withdraw from the study whenever they feel like it without fear of any penalties. It is voluntary because the participants can refuse to participate in the study. Participants will earn 5% extra credit for every 60 minutes spent in the study applicable to their CLS course. The study has minimal risks, such as emotional discomfort, fear, and anxiety. Lastly, confidentiality will be ensured by having a pseudonym to protect the participant’s identity. No one else other than the research will access the information collected.

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CLB 475 – Seminar
Spring 2020

Research Proposal

(20% of final grade)

The final research proposal is a combination of the Literature Review and Methodology assignments in
one paper. The guidelines for the research proposal are as follows:

• There should be ONE cover page and ONE reference list; these pages do not count towards the
page limit

• Literature review section:

o 4 to 6 pages in length
o Contain all sections specified in the Literature Review Instructions and Rubric document
o AT LEAST five (5) primary references should be used
o References must be included as in-text citations in the body of the literature review and in

the reference list
o All references (primary and secondary) should be formatted in APA format

• Methodology section

o 1 to 2 pages in length
o Contain all sections as specified in the Methodology Instructions and Rubric document

• The entire document should be formatted in Times New Roman font, size 12, 1-inch margins, and

double-spaced.

• The entire document should not exceed 10 pages. All pages, except the cover page, should be
numbered.

• Proper grammar and spelling are required.

______________________________________________________________________________

Rubric for Assessment of Research Proposal:

Rubric for Assessment of Literature Review Rubric for Assessment of Methodology

• Problem statement – 1 point
• Description of published literature on topic –

3 points
• Purpose – 1 point
• Significance – 1 point
• Research question – 1 point
• Hypothesis – 1 point

• Design – 1 point
• Variables – 2 points
• Participants – 2 point
• Controls – 1 point
• Sampling – 1 point
• Validity and Reliability – 1 point
• Data Collection Technique – 1 point
• Research ethics – 1 point

• References and in-text citations in APA format – 1 point
• Format and page limit – 0.5 point
• Proper grammar and spelling – 0.5 point

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Literature Review on How Biofilm Affect the Patient Recovery at the Hospital

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course Name

Date

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Introduction

Regulating biofilms for injury and insertion can have a variety of adverse effects on

patient well-being, including delayed recovery and implant evacuation. Biofilm drugs currently

do not completely destroy or prevent microbial colonization, indicating the need for further

research. The final review of drugs for biofilms focuses on components of nanotechnology-based

drug delivery, combination therapy, and coupling repair. Ultrasonic cleaning and hydrogels, as

well as recent improvements in incorporation, have great potential for use in discrete trauma and

medicine applications. This study reviews various literatures on the development of

microorganisms in biofilms and how it affects patient recovery at the hospital.

Patients with biofilms wounds excrete various microbes from their own skin and current

state, and if they receive hospitalization for treatment, they are likely to receive MRE and HAI

from surfaces, patients, staff, and emergency department equipment (Wu et al., 2018). This

literature states that such patients have high levels of biofilm contamination for biofilm reduction

applications in consuming patients include silver and various metals. Other elements indicating

this condition include disinfectants, hydrogels, light and sonic treatments to initiate atomic

sensitization to deliver dynamic oxygen (Wu et al., 2018). Small particles of these contaminants

allow penetration into the dividing layer of cells, glycans, lactobacilli and treatment with phages.

Other scholars such as Muhammad et al. (2020) and Barzegari et al. (2020) assert that the

accumulation of microorganisms can be immobile and live and attached to the surface. The

regimen of this group of people is not the same as that of planktonic development, where

microorganisms are isolated and flexible in environment (Muhammad et al., 2020). Cecillus cells

differ from planktonic cells in their morphology, physiology and qualitative articulation. The

ability to adhere to and thrive on surfaces such as biofilms is a gradual survival process that

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allows microorganisms to colonize the zone (Muhammad et al., 2020). Microbes are constantly

changing from planktonic aggregates to sedentary ones. This variety of conditions is key for cells

as they allow rapid changes in their natural state.

Wound swelling can be characterized as the ability of microorganisms to thrive when

antimicrobial compounds are present in the climate. The obstructive component is hereditary and

prevents the antitoxin from working for its purpose (Barzegari et al., 2020). This literature

indicates that the term resistance should be used for microbes that may be caused by high-class

antibiotics but whose development is delayed. This element, which explicitly describes the life of

sessile bacteria, is reversible, phenotypic and non-obtainable. Biofilm bacterial cells resuspended

in liquid media will regain their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.

The journal by Thi et al. (2020) shows that the size of bacterial biofilm is a major brake

in the phagocytic cycle. During internal immune reactions, macrophages and neutrophils are

rapidly activated upon direct contact with microorganisms (Thi et al., 2020). Here, the rapid safe

response leads to significant neutrophil accumulation around the biofilm structure associated

with oxygen exhaustion due to functional stimulation of oxidative digestion when subatomic

oxygen is reduced to superoxide. Phagocytic cells infiltrate with extracellular tissue problems.

Thi et al. (2020) assert that these cells recover and are more susceptible to inactivation by

bacterial chemicals. In addition, prolonged neutrophil lysis causes a flux to a noxious mixed

environment that is responsible for subsequent tissue damage. Resistant host response is the main

reason behind hard tissue damage by bacterial contamination.

Regarding the memory of resistant scaffold reactions, it has been reported that CF

patients emit specific antibodies against bacterial mixtures such as elastase, LPS or flagella. This

information indicates that the antigenic determinant has been killed by continued lung

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contamination (Magana et al., 2018). Unfortunately, these antibodies have been shown to

contribute to the accelerated assembly of immune structures in the parenchyma and result in

extreme tissue damage through complementary initiation and opsonization of neutrophils,

particularly by bypass. This literature postulate that the resistance of biofilms to external

influences, especially antitoxin drugs, is an unusual element. According to this research, the

MICs of antimicrobial formulations that were successful against sessile microbes were 10 times

greater than those that were dynamic in their planktonic presentation (Magana et al., 2018). This

decrease in antimicrobial resistance can have several causes. Usually inherent in biofilms, but

can also be acquired through the inheritance of opposing factors.

Magana et al. (2018) state that the extracellular lattice provides a mechanical barrier that

limits the spread of infection within the biofilm and its access to microorganisms. The

electrostatic charge or some part of the lattice binds and traps the antimicrobial atoms. The

overall high consistency of the polymer network may also prevent the anti-infective from

reaching its focus in the deeper layers of the local area of the bacteria (Magana et al., 2018).

Thus, microscopic organisms in the outer layers of the biofilm pass after antimicrobial treatment,

while those in the deeper layers have a chance to react. This study shows that the polymer binds

to antimicrobial compounds in the periplasm, causing the antitoxin to diffuse into the cell and

preventing it from reaching its site of activity.

Hartmann et al. (2019) note that the antitoxins has a unique capacity in combating the

climate and limiting the development of competitors. The production of antimicrobial agents by

the microorganisms themselves allows the killing of hunters. Anti-infective atoms are only a

small part of the natural mixture created by microscopic organisms (Hartmann et al., 2019).

Therefore, it is highly expected that they may affect the overall metabolic capacity for correcting

microbes, like other comparable brands. Phylogenetic studies have supported this suspicion that

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antimicrobial safe properties existed in the bacterial genome long before the widespread use of

antitoxins. A comparative article “Emergence of three-dimensional order and structure in

growing biofilms. Nature Physics” is concerned about metagenomic studies which demonstrate

the presence of an ancient and distinct set of properties of -lactamases, despite the unknown

climate of this antimicrobial family.

Antimicrobial mixtures appear to go about as flagging particles, controlling the

homeostasis of bacterial networks to initiate explicit quality record. As sessile cells are

fundamentally less delicate to antimicrobials, biofilm arrangement would be an essential

development of bacterial populaces to balance non-deadly portions of anti-toxins created by soil

microorganisms (Magana et al., 2018). This case infers that antimicrobials can likewise be useful

for the endurance of helpless planktonic cells in nature. In this manner, they can allow a more

proficient colonization of heterogeneous conditions. Particularly at subinhibitory levels, anti-

microbials regulate bacterial destructiveness, stress reaction, motility, and biofilm arrangement.

Generally, clinical microbial science research centers have zeroed in on the way of life of

separated bacterial strains and give their defenselessness to anti-microbials in characterizing the

breakpoints and the PK/PD boundaries under planktonic development conditions (Thi et al.,

2020). The relating anti-toxin treatments, in view of non-disciple microorganisms, are frequently

connected with treatment disappointments and additionally repeat of the disease. No rules are

proposed to clinicians to effectively treat biofilm diseases, which can result to misleading

negative information in the event that the examples don’t essentially address the primary

contamination.

Furthermore, as Thi et al. (2020) state, there is still no accessible normalized instrument

to recognize effectively the presence of sessile cells in a clinical example and permit assurance

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of their particular anti-infection helplessness. As biofilm microscopic organisms are intrinsically

more lenient to antimicrobials, the foundation of the relating breakpoints to anticipate helpful

achievement is required. New strategies checking the impact/reaction of biofilm cells to anti-

microbial treatment should be planned. Presently, two advancements were grown however not

yet normalized for a fast standard use in medical clinic research facilities.

Conclusion

The treatment of bacterial diseases with artificially unmistakable anti-infection agents

can prompt an assortment of reactions from sessile microscopic organisms. Notwithstanding the

expanded resilience of microorganisms toward antimicrobials, a few atoms are generally

successful against recently follower microbes. In clinical practice, when situations allow,

concerning the diabetic condition for example, to fall back on effective organization to give high

neighborhood fixations to the disease site without fundamental aftereffects. However, various

investigations have likewise portrayed that low dosages of anti-toxins can altogether actuate

biofilm development in vitro for an assortment of bacterial animal categories. More literatures on

anti-microbial prompted biofilm development are expected to clarify the elaborate components.

Clinical preliminaries that check the importance of this interaction in patients and the likely

relationship with treatment will likewise be exceptionally useful. The possibility of integral tests

assessing the weakness of free and sessile cells to anti-toxins would likewise permit the

improvement of the overall utilization of antimicrobials in the treatment of biofilm-related

contaminations.

References

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Barzegari, A., Kheyrolahzadeh, K., Hosseiniyan Khatibi, S. M., Sharifi, S., Memar, M. Y., &

Zununi Vahed, S. (2020). The Battle of probiotics and their derivatives against

Biofilms. Infection and Drug Resistance, 13, 659-

672. https://doi.org/10.2147/idr.s232982

Hartmann, R., Singh, P. K., Pearce, P., Mok, R., Song, B., Díaz-Pascual, F., Dunkel, J.,

Drescher, K. (2019). Emergence of three-dimensional order and structure in growing

biofilms. Nature Physics, 15(3), 251-256. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-018-0356-9

Magana, M., Sereti, C., Ioannidis, A., Mitchell, C. A., Ball, A. R., Magiorkinis, E.,

Chatzipanagiotou, S., Hamblin, M. R., Hadjifrangiskou, M., & Tegos, G. P. (2018).

Options and limitations in clinical investigation of bacterial Biofilms. Clinical

Microbiology Reviews, 31(3). https://doi.org/10.1128/cmr.00084-16

Muhammad, M. H., Idris, A. L., Fan, X., Guo, Y., Yu, Y., Jin, X., Qiu, J., Guan, X., &

Huang, T. (2020). Beyond risk: Bacterial Biofilms and their regulating

approaches. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00928

Thi, M. T., Wibowo, D., & Rehm, B. H. (2020). Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Biofilms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(22),

8671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228671

Wu, Y., Cheng, N., & Cheng, C. (2018). Biofilms in chronic wounds: Pathogenesis and

diagnosis. Trends in Biotechnology, 37(5), 505-

517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2018.10.011

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