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Reply to these two other posts with at least 3-4 sentences of constructive feedback and new information/ideas.


Enlightened trial and error is the process in which a designer makes several models of a product and tests to get feedback on it. Each model is accessed by fellow designers and the model goes back to the designing process until it is seemingly perfected. The trial is enlightened because this process helps the designers understand what the issues are with the product. Knowing the issues with the product makes it easier for the designer to be aware of problems and how to fix them. It also allows the designer to have an idea of what the public would think of a product. A specification driven culture focuses more on what it wrong through innovation audits, and shows what is blocking the company from success innovation-wise. A prototype driven culture goes through several designs with tests and feedback to discover differences and possible improvements. It is important to prototype first because the public can tell the designer what he or she initially missed or designed wrong when creating the prototype. From this feedback, the designer can make another prototype. The more feedback you gain from the designs, the more information you can gain (Dam & Siang, 2018). The fail tests were when Apple designed a series of tests for their mouse’s to see at which point they would fail. One of the tests were being spun around on different surfaces such as wood and glass to see at which point they would fail. Another test was to see how the ball in the mouse should be included. If the ball were to be pushed with a lot of force, the mouse would break. If the mouse was too far from the mouse, the mouse could pick up dust particles and eraser filings. Another test found that users liked the bigger mouse’s as opposed to the smaller mouse’s. All of these tests helped Apple create the ideal mouse for their users. The barriers facing the news industry today is that, as the younger generations turn to different platforms for news, the older generation fails to make innovations, causing even more viewers to turn to different areas to find news. I believe that the trial and error idea would help the news industry. It would gauge what viewers are interested in today and, after feedback, the news program could either keep these changes or innovate further. The key success factors are the gaining of viewers. If the news program were to gain viewers in an environment where it is rare to do so, then the program is doing something right with their new innovations.


When in your prototype stage, the faster you create, the faster you can get feedback and be able to recreate and improve on it. Kelly defines this process as “enlightened trial and error” as the quicker you receive responses on your prototype, whether positive or negative, the faster you can adjust and develop a better model. The enlightenment comes from the multiple people that will give you insights into your prototype. Specification-based cultures have more objectives and conditions based on requirements whereas prototype cultures give you a quick way to make decisions since you have actual data as to how something will function. Prototype cultures can have many benefits to the customers and stakeholders, letting them see and understand your vision. Making a prototype first, before your final stage will let you see any errors that may have been missed in the design phase, as well as allow others to pass on their judgments. In the case of the computer mouse there were multiple prototypes that all led to new realizations about this product. When Doug Engelbart created the mouse he knew he wanted it a certain way, but in the first prototype stage he found it didn’t quite work. He found he couldn’t have the ball how he wanted so he made a new prototype to change it, but then found that didn’t work either. Finally he decides to remove the ball all together and without multiple prototype tests this would not have been the case. With the age of technology comes the fall of the news industry. In Reinventing the News Industry, David Skok discusses the fall of the news industry with the rise of disruptors like The Huffington Post and Buzz Feed which have generated themselves into replacements for the traditional daily newspaper. The failure to change and innovate has led to the news industry’s continued downfall. When looking at enlightened trial and error there is an equal chance it could benefit or fail. Though the news industry must make radical changes to remain relevant in today’s world they must create fresh ideas to compete with online reporters. The article states three success factors for new businesses to follow: understanding what audience’s value, explaining the impact of disrupting the news industry, and examining the culture roles within the companies. With these areas under consideration the news industry has a chance at changing the outcome of a once successful business.

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