Two forum responses 200 words each with works cited. Also respond to forum/question with 200 words with works cited. International relations: international political systems.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is not something we normally hear about in news broadcasts or political discussions. This organization, which is over fifty years old, started small as has grown in membership, stature, and influence over the years. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand were the charter members of the organization which I believe was based on the theory of Neorealism. Neorealism asserts that states act within the structure of the international political system, and their interests and policies are formed based on their positions in the system. The state’s capabilities, determine the state’s position in the system.
The motivation for the creation of ASEAN was partly a common fear of communism, and a desire for economic development. The stated purpose for the creation of ASEAN was to accelerate economic growth in the region, promote peace and stability, provide mutual assistance on matters of common interest, work toward greater utilization of common agriculture and industries, and respect the sovereignty, territory, and identity of all states. I believe that the members of ASEAN are likely to pursue deeper integration in the future. I base this partly on the fact that ASEAN has lived up to its founding principles, which include the right of each state to be free from external interference, settlement of disputes and differences in a peaceful manner, and renunciation of the threat or use of force. I believe that the successful accomplishment of maintaining these principles contributes to the reason that we are not exposed to news of this organization.
Ambassador Elizabeth P. Buensuceso, Permanent Representative of the Philippines to ASEAN and Chair, Committee of Permanent Representatives to ASEAN, during an interview with Kevin Princic conducted for the Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations shared some interesting information which adds to my belief that ASEAN will pursue deeper integration in the future. She shared the fact that ASEAN is an economic powerhouse, of at least 629 million people. It is the third largest in the world behind China and India. ASEAN has a combined GDP of USD 2.43 trillion, the 7th largest in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. Ambassador Buensuceso tells us that continuing economic integration has been a key driver of prosperity in the ASEAN region. In addition, almost all products of ASEAN member states are being traded within ASEAN at zero tariffs, and more and more ASEAN people are also working and travelling in the region (Princic, 2017). I find it quite interesting that there has been no major conflict between or among ASEAN Member States since the completion of the ASEAN-10 in 1999. That is quite an accomplishment in today’s world of turmoil. ASEAN-led activities such as the East Asia Summit, the ASEAN Plus Dialogue Partners Summits, and the ASEAN Regional Forum have resulted in increased engagement and strengthened cooperation between ASEAN Member States and major powers like the U.S., Russia, Japan, China, India, ROK, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the EU. As far as the future, ASEAN is not sitting still. ASEAN is attempting to establish a Code of Conduct (COC) in the South China Sea. They have identified common elements of what they envisioned in a COC, At the 19th ASEAN-China Summit in September, 2016, Leaders of ASEAN and China agreed to attempt the implementation of “Early Harvest Measures” by the end of 2016, They also adopted a joint statement on the Application of the Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea (CUES) in the South China Sea, and the Guidelines for Hotline Communications among Senior Officials of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of ASEAN Member States and China,
There are other reasons to be confident that the members of ASEAN are likely to pursue deeper integration in the future. The ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted by the ASEAN Leaders in 1997 was a vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations which would strive for stability, peace, and prosperity in the region. In 2003, the members resolved that this concert, an Asian Community would be established. Finally, in 2007, the members affirmed their commitment to establish the community and signed the Cebu Declaration on the Acceleration of the Establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015. The Asian Charter, which became effective in 2008 is a legally binding agreement among the ASEAN members which summarizes the rules and values of the community, set targets, and provides for accountability and compliance
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 as an intergovernmental organization with 10 Southeast Asian countries as members. During ASEAN’s second decade it helped resolve the conflict of Indochina and shortly after Burma-Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam were admitted into the circle. ASEAN was then confronted with obstacles and experienced political, economic and financial crisis. Around the same era the region experienced religious and ethnic tensions along with border disputes. ASEAN has definitely experienced its rocky road of problems but was able to overcome these peacefully (Jones and Smith 2007, 148).
After seeing the success of ASEAN in Southeast Asian countries there was an even further pursue for regional integration by expanding into East Asia. This idea came to extend the ASEAN reach and share the same norms and values in Southeast Asia as they were successful there. I would have to say I noticed the liberalism theory approach since it relied more on cooperation among these states to maintain a stable region. ASEAN focuses on promoting Pan-Asianism and this was the perfect opportunity to use its idea and implement in the Southeast Asia region. As we learned before about Liberalism the focus is on using IOs such as ASEAN for a group of states to cooperate with each other. Using this tactic of cooperation among states and specifically Southeast Asian would help reduce conflict. These states would interact economically, financially and also through culture. Security is also a factor and cooperation between these states is essential to guarantee lasting peace (Jones and Smith 2007, 149).
I see ASEAN as an IO continuing to expand further and this is good for these states to all continue growing economically while also reducing tensions or conflicts among each other. Jones stated “ASEAN was originally founded to establish the conditions of stability among heterogeneous grouping of weak postcolonial states in Southeast Asia, and subsequent attempts to extend its associative modality beyond this limited goal leads only to organizational ambiguity and academic incoherence” (Jones and Smith 2007, 149). This in short explains how ASEAN was created in an effort to keep the peace in the region and has continued to grow in members from when it was first created.
Recently though Southeast Asia has confronted a new problem and this is the growing threat of terrorism and some of these states have had a difficult time controlling militants within their borders. Three of these member states facing the highest threat level of terrorism are the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. The most affected to date would have to be the Philippines with Abu Sayyaf a militant group that recently pledged allegiance to the Islamic State. There was a siege in Mindanao not too long ago where the Islamic State caused a state of panic by seizing Marawi city and engaging in a 5 month armed conflict. The incident even caused President Duterte of the Philippines to declare martial law until the siege was finally lifted and residents were able to return home to a destroyed city. This can be very concerning due to the fact that Mindanao is the Philippines 2nd largest island in the country. The Philippines being a member of ASEAN threatens the security of its neighbors due to its insurgency problem and close proximity to Indonesia and Malaysia.
Post 3 is a response to this question:
By the way, what is the difference between ASEAN and NATO?