Response to three discussion posts (50-100 words)

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Respond in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

    Example is in the attachment!
    Please include references in the response.

Post 1 (Write a 50-100 words response)

Attitudinal Influences on Information Processing and Decision Making

Individuals process information in their environments differently through their experiences which influence the way they interpret the message, but also the memories that are activated when information is presented. Interpretation is personal in that an individual processes information based on how they feel about the received message One’s reaction may occur on a conscious or subconscious level but will affect the attitude of the individual either positively or negatively (Banaji & Heiphetz, 2010). The attitude formed from exposure to an object or situation can emerge from on-line processing or memory-based processing (Sanbonmatsu, 1990). Where on-line processing is more automatic, the memory-based processing involves judgments based on retrieval of previously stored information. If an individual has a memory of an incident where they became ill at the zoo, they may develop a negative attitude towards zoos as a result. The interpretation is not from a position of thinking logically about zoos, but rather a feeling that is evoked by a memory. One’s attitude toward zoos may not produce any response if the individual has never visited a zoo. The attitude is contingent on relevance and the more relevant the target, the more likely it will influence the way the attitude is materializes.


Banaji, M. R., & Heiphetz, L. (2010). Attitudes. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. E. Lindzey, Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol. 1) (pp. 370-376). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Sanbonmatsu, D. M. (1990). The role of attitudes in memory-based decision making. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 59(4) , 614–622. Retrieved from

Post 2 (Write a 50-100 words response)

Attitudinal Influences Applied to the Information Processing of Advertisements

There was an advertisement on television a couple of years ago for UNICEF that tugged at my heart strings. The ad begins with a woman singing the song “You Are My Sunshine” which is a song that my mom sang to us as young children. The ad shows women kissing and hugging their babies. Caryl Stern appears and begins talking about the way parents love their children and want to make sure they have enough food, medical care, education, etc., but that there are children everywhere who are not that fortunate. She explains that as parents we should care enough about these children to donate to UNICEF (UNICEF, 2016).

There was a little girl in the ad that captured my attention. She looks just like one of my grand-daughters and to think of that beautiful child going without because I didn’t contribute a mere 50 cents a day, just $15.00 a month (about what I’d spend on a few lunches out with my co-workers. This ad’s message is pretty clear…donate or you’re a bad person! I was raised in a Catholic household and attended Catholic school as a child. We were taught to give even if we had little ourselves. Self-sacrifice was rewarded. We were given UNICEF boxes to bring around with us when we went trick or treating because there are kids all over the world who won’t even get supper and you’re getting a huge bucket full of candy! Guilt can be a great motivator! Although my attitude toward the ad was formed from the experiences of my childhood, the motivation driving the attitude has changed (Banaji & Heiphetz, 2010). The original attitude was formed from fear of eternal damnation. In my mid-twenties, I had children of my own and my attitude changed from fear to a more cognizant thought of how fortunate I was to have more than enough, and my attitude changed to one of compassion and empathy. The UNICEF ad still reminds me of the little cardboard box from my youth, but the concept of giving has taken on a more conscious meaning.


Banaji, M. R., & Heiphetz, L. (2010). Attitudes. In S. T. Fisk, D. T. Gilbert, & G. (. Lindzey, Handbook of social psychology 5th ed., Vol. 1 (pp. 370-376). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

UNICEF. (2016). “Sunshine” A message from Caryl M Stern. United States.

Post 3 (Write a 50-100 words response)

Research Design for One-Way ANOVA

  1. What is your research question?

My research question seeks to see if the means of respondent’s socioeconomic index differ when it comes to ownership of a gun in their home.

  1. What is the null hypothesis for your question?

The null hypothesis for my research question is that there will be no difference between any of the means. H0:μ1=μ234

  1. What research design would align with this question?

I am seeking to test for a significant relationship between one dependent variable, the respondent’s socioeconomic index and one independent variable, ownership of a gun in the home. Therefore, the one-way ANOVA is the best research design to use for this question.

  1. What dependent variable was used and how is it measured?

The dependent variable is the respondent’s socioeconomic status index. It is measured at the interval or ratio level, it is a continuous variable.

  1. What independent variable is used and how is it measured?

The independent variable is ownership of a gun in their home. It is a categorical level and there are 3 categorical groups within this variable, yes, no, and refused.

  1. If you found significance, what is the strength of the effect?

There was a statistically significant difference between groups as determined by one-way ANOVA (F(2,1632) = 7.483, p = .001).

  1. Explain your results for a lay audience and further explain what the answer is to your research question.

My research hypothesis was that at least one mean is different from the others when it comes to ownership of guns in the home. A one-way ANOVA test was used to test for a significant relationship between the dependent variable (socioeconomic index) and the independent variable (owns a gun in their home). The results of the one-way ANOVA yield a significant p-value of .001 which is below the threshold of significance. (LaVenia Jaz Favor )

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