# Algebra Unit IV Discussion Board Question In this unit, you learned about lines, angles, circles, polygons, area, and perimeter. Select an object in your home, workplace, or throughout daily life th

Algebra Unit IV Discussion Board Question

In this unit, you learned about lines, angles, circles, polygons, area, and perimeter. Select an object in your home, workplace, or throughout daily life that was formed using these geometric characteristics. Discuss the shape as if it were a two-dimensional figure. Describe what the figure looks like by commenting on the shapes that are used to form the figure; the number of sides, lines, and angles; and any other geometric descriptor. Make sure to use appropriate definitions and be detailed as possible in your description. Next, give a hint about the object is used. Important: Do not state the name of the object.

In your reply to a classmate, guess the figure that they described. Next, describe and provide the formula(s) for finding the area of the two-dimensional figure they described or the figure you think they described.

Unit V Discussion Board Question

Throughout this course, you have completed homework and assessments in MyLab Math, and you also have completed one assignment in Blackboard. Each of these tasks required you to use different methods for entering in the answers and submitting the assignment. For example, homework assignments require you to use the MyLab Math symbol toolbox, assessments require that you show your work in the show work window, and Blackboard assignments require you to upload a document into Blackboard. For this discussion, describe a challenge that you encountered while using these different platforms to submit your assignments. How did you overcome this challenge? Additionally, what tools do you use to help you submit these different types of assignments in an efficient manner?

When responding to classmates, include one or two tips that you feel may help them improve their use of the technology utilized in this course.

Biology Unit IV Discussion Board Question

Consider the process of Darwinian evolution in which organisms change over time in response to their environment. After reading this week’s Study Guide and corresponding chapters, do you think humans are continuing to evolve in a Darwinian, genetic sense? Do not just write “yes” or “no,” but explain at least one example to support your educated opinion. Make sure to discuss genetic changes in your response and not behavioral/learned changes in our society. Remember, evolution generally occurs on long time scales; therefore, recent advancement in technology is not an example of human evolution. Substantial points will be lost for such discussions. Whether or not you support the material discussed in this Unit, your response should be based on the information presented here.

Unit V Discussion Board Question

Have you ever driven through a rural area and thought, “There is nothing out here”? Was the area actually fallow, or might it have been used for some purpose, such as trees for timber or pulpwood? Did the rural area reassure you that your family and society at large would have enough space for the future, or are you concerned about our ability to produce food and have a dependable supply of clean water for our growing population, for example? What can be done to conserve or more efficiently use land and resources for future generations?

Remember, your responses to Discussion Board questions should be informed by the week’s Study Guide, corresponding chapters in the eText, and additional research using appropriate sources (see the Welcome Announcement for example

Health Information Unit IV Discussion Board Question

Of the various types of administrative information systems that have been discussed in this unit, which one do you feel is the most valuable? Support your answer, and explain why.

Unit V Discussion Board Question

Do you believe that health care organizations do enough to protect the health care information of their patients? Why or why not? In your opinion, are the penalties for noncompliance with HIPAA strong enough? Why, or why not?

Budgeting in HealthCare Unit IV Discussion Board Question

Budgeting is the key to financial success in health care. Discuss your opinion on the importance of the revenue budget. What do you think some pitfalls of a budget shortage would be?

Unit V Discussion Board Question

The healthcare manager, department director, and administrators all need to be aware of the budgeting costs and calculations to project future budgets and remain fiscally responsible for their departments or the facility. Which budget analysis is most important to a department, and why?

Algebra Unit IV Discussion Board Question In this unit, you learned about lines, angles, circles, polygons, area, and perimeter. Select an object in your home, workplace, or throughout daily life th
BIO 1 301, Non -Majors Biology 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit IV Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Define the basic concepts of biological sciences. 1.1 Define terms used when discussing evolution. 1.2 Recall the classification of organisms. 2. Apply the scientific method. 2.1 Apply the scientific method to Darwin’s formulation of the theory of common descent with modification. 5. Interpret Darwin’s theory of evolution to include natural selection an d common descent. 5.1 Discuss common descent and the evidence that supports it. 5.2 Discuss natural selection and the patterns of selection. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 1.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 14 Unit IV Assessment 1.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 14 Unit IV Assessment 2.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 11 Unit IV Assessment 5.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 11 Unit IV Assessment 5.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 12 Unit IV Assessment Required Unit Resources Chapter 11: Where Did We Come From? Chapter 12: An Evolving Enemy Chapter 14: The Greatest Species on Earth? Unit Lesson This unit includes materials concerning evolutionary theories, natural selection, and the diversity of life from Chapters 11, 12, and 14. In Chapter 11, “Where Did We Come From?” the authors explain what evolution means and the various theories of evolutio n. In addition, a detailed explanation of Charles Darwin’s theory of UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE Evolution BIO 1301, Non -Majors Biology 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title evolution is described, including the scientific evidence supporting Darwin’s theory. Linnaean classification is also explained in this chapter. Many people report that they do not belie ve in evolution. It is not the intent of this course to change anyone’s mind about what he or she believes. This is a biology course, not a theology course. No matter what you believe, we do expect students to come away from the course with an understandin g of the basic concepts of Darwin’s theory. Let’s start by understanding what a scientist means when the word theory gets used. Going back to the scientific method, one begins with an observation. For example, Darwin observed on the Galapagos Islands tha t tortoises were different from island to island. This is step one of the scientific method (Belk & Maier, 2019). Step two is making a hypothesi s. It took some time for Darwin to come up with a hypothesis, but eventually he hypothesized common descent with modification . That is, Darwin thought that all the tortoises on the different islands descended from a single species that originally came from the South American mainland. Common descent is the theory that all living organisms on earth are descended from the same ancestor. Step three of the scientific method is to make a prediction based on the hypothesis. For example, Darwin predicted that all the different tortoises would have common characteristics but would also be different depending on the environment on the island on which each tortoise lived. How these differences came to be is explained by natural selection, but we will stick to common descent for now. Step four of the scientific method is to test the prediction. The textbook discusses evidence that supports the prediction o n pages 229 –230. Consider why a suspect is innocent until proven guilty in criminal investigations. The reason for this is because people cannot prove themselves innocent. Even an alibi could be fabricated. For example, during the Salem witch trials, some people would accuse others of witchcraft. The only proof supporting the accusation was the testimony of the “victim” of the witchcraft. Since one obviously cannot prove that one is not a witch, many people were convicted and hanged (Brooks, 2011). Now, yo u may ask, what does this have to do with biology? Well, just as innocence cannot be absolutely proved, theories such as the theory of evolution cannot be absolutely proved, either. Einstein, in referring to his theory of relativity, pointed out that while many observations support it, a single observation could disprove it. There may always be something else Einstein or Darwin did not think of to explain the observations. That is why scientists call these ideas theories , even though the scientific evidence is overwhelming. Common descent —how closely related is human evolution to the evolution of other species? (Pietras, 2017 ) BIO 1301, Non -Majors Biology 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Darwin and the theory of evolution do not address how life began. But once life began, it immediately bega n to evolve. Organisms must evolve because their environment changes; if the organisms do not also change, they will die out. Just think, every organism on the planet has DNA that directs its life. From the tiniest germ to the largest whales, all living be ings have DNA. What a remarkable molecule! This fact supports the hypothesis that all living beings have a common ancestor. Speaking of common ancestors, humans did not descend from the great apes. You may have heard that humans and chimpanzees both derive from a common ancestor that lived about 7 million years ago (Belk & Maier, 2019). That common ancestor has not yet been found. People sometimes ask, “If humans descended from a common ancestor, why are there great apes? W hy did we not supplant them?” The answer, of course, is that the various offsprings of the common ancestor moved into different environments and evolved differently. Think back to the Galapagos tortoises. Some offsprings lived in the forest, while others lived in the savannah. The demands placed on each type of offspring by the different environment resulted in different species over time. This is not to say that one species is superior to another —evolution does not strive for superior organisms. Darwin ne ver uttered the well -known phrase “survival of the fittest.” Evolution involves survival of those who are best suited to the environment in which they find themselves. So, what do species do when the environment changes? Those with traits suited to the n ew environment do well, while those whose traits do not suit will die out. That is what natural selection is all about. Individuals are naturally selected to survive and reproduce, or they are not. Be aware that individuals cannot adapt or evolve; it is on ly the population that adapts and evolves, and such evolution occurs over time, not immediately. For most organisms, the male species is the most colorful, can jump the highest, fly the fastest, and so on. The male’s energy is focused on traits that ensu re that the fittest female will mate with him. This is known as sexual selection; mating is usually not random. Let’s apply that to a particular scenario. Think about a fish that lives in a pond with predators. Guppies vary in color, just as different tr aits vary in humans. Some male guppies are very colorful, which attracts a female. If there are no predators in an area, its chances of reproducing are better if the guppy is colorful. However, being colorful also attracts predators. If there are predators in a pond, a guppy’s chances of survival are better if it is not colorful; if it can blend in with its surroundings, a predator will not be able to see it and eat it. Based on that information, if guppies live in a pond with predators, would you expect mo st of the male guppies to be colorful or to be able to blend in with their surroundings? Evolution and natural selection ensure survival of organisms such as fish and humans; however, these factors also influence diseases that are caused by bacteria, vir uses, fungi, and protists. Chapter 12, “An Evolving Enemy,” describes the evolutionary processes of diseases by natural selection. The textbook chapter presents materials by using the example of Tuberculosis to explain the importance of understanding the t heory of natural selection and the danger of the evolutionary changes that occur within infectious diseases. Are we overusing antibiotics? Are we forcing the evolution of a superbug? Does the human body become immune to antibiotics? Statue of Charles Darwin created by Sir Joseph Boehm and unveiled in London’s Natural History Museum in 1885 (Patche99z, 2009 ) BIO 1301, Non -Majors Biology 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Mutations are one way the genetics of a population changes. Depending on the circumstances, most mutations are harmful, some are neutral, and rarely, some are helpful. Do not forget that while mutations are a part of evolution for a population’s gene pool, natural selection als o changes genes over time. All humans belong to a species called Homo sapiens . What determines a species? A biological species includes organisms that interbreed naturally and produce offspring that are reproductively viable. Why do different species fai l to mate? There are various reasons that keep organisms belonging to one species from attempting to mate with those belonging to another species. These are referred to as pre -fertilization isolation mechanisms . In other words, these isolation measures kee p reproduction between species from naturally occurring. Sometimes fertilization occurs; however, offspring are not produced. These are referred to as post -fertilization mechanisms . Fertilization can occur between members of two different species; however, the hybrid offspring is generally not able to reproduce. An example of this would be mules, which are a cross between a horse and a donkey (Belk & Maier, 2019). Both mechanisms prevent gene flow between different species. For specific information about th e various types of isolating mechanisms, see page 264 in the course textbook. Even though genes do not flow from species to species, diversity is vast. Scientists have described over 1.3 million different species (Belk & Maier, 2019). How can scientists keep up with so many different species? They do this by classifying organisms into groups. This type of classification is called taxonomy. The groups have changed some over time due to increased knowledge. Currently, most scientists group all l iving organisms into one of three domains: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archae. Eukarya are further divided into four different kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protista. Each kingdom is then divided into phyla, classes, orders, families, genus, and fin ally, species. The levels start out being very broad or general and result in the specific organisms: genus and species. Where do we fit in? A billion years is 1,000,000,000 years —a very long time. Scientists think the universe began almost 14 billion ye ars ago (Crew, 2018). Consider that the great pyramids of Egypt, which seem to have been around for such a long time, were built only about 4,000 years ago. BIO 1301, Non -Majors Biology 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago, and after a billion years, life might have made its first appearance (Belk & Maier, 2019). Therefore, prokaryotic cells, such as bac teria and archaea, began the journey of life on this planet around 3.5 billion years ago. Five hundred million years later, cyanobacteria developed photosynthesis. These remarkable organisms can live on water, CO 2, and sunlight. Photosynthesis has been on earth 3 billion years. Not much happened after the development of photosynthesis for a billion years, and then the first eukaryotic life forms appeared. It took a billion years for prokaryotic cells to evolve into eukaryotic cells. About 1.5 billion year s ago, eukaryotic cells assimilated mitochondria (Crew, 2018). It is thought that single -celled organisms developed sophisticated metabolisms and that eukaryotes took the tiny organisms into their cells as organelles. From this point, things started to m ove much faster. A billion years ago, the eukaryotic populations became much greater. Five hundred million years ago, multi -celled organisms appeared, and the Cambrian explosion of life occurred (Royal Ontario Museum, 2011). The Cambrian explosion was an i mportant evolutionary event, as many new life forms came into existence at that time. About 700 million years ago, life began to appear on land, and air – breathing animals arrived (University of California Museum of Paleontology, n.d -b.). Around 300 milli on years ago, the Permian extinction began. By the time it ended 251 million years ago, it had wiped out 90% of all marine species and 70% of the land animals in existence at the time (National Geographic, 2017). While the cause is debated, it might have h appened because of planet – wide cooling and the occurrence of glaciation. Nevertheless, life and evolution continued, and about 225 million years ago, the first dinosaurs and mammals appeared. The first birds did not evolve until about 150 million years ago University of California Museum of Paleontology, n.d. -a). Then, 65 million years ago, another disaster occurred —the Cretaceous extinction event that wiped out 75% of the species and gave rise to the first primates. Grass evolved about 35 million years a go (Kellogg, 2001), and great apes appeared about 25 million years ago (Gorillas -World, 2014). The last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees did not appear until about 6 -7 million years ago. The first Homo species arrived 2 million years ago, and fina lly, modern Homo sapiens arrived about 0.2 million years ago (Pontzer, 2014) —a comparatively short time when considering all the evolution that preceded their arrival. What a journey! As you read chapters 11, 12, and 14, appreciate the great diversity of life and how much work it took for species to get to where they are today. References At09kg. (2016). Photosynthesis en [Image]. Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Photosynthesis_en.svg Belk, C., & Maier, V. B. (2019). Biology: Science for life with physiology (6th ed.). Pearson Brooks, R. (2011, August 18). History of the Salem witch trials . http://historyofmassachusetts.org/the -salem – witch -trials/ Crew, B. (2018). This timeline shows the entire history of the universe, and where it’s headed . https://www.sciencealert.com/timeline -shows -the -entire -history -of-the -universe -and -how -it-ends Gorillas -World. (2014). Gorilla evolution . https://www.gorillas -world.com/gorilla -evolution/ Kellogg, E. A. (2001). Evolutionary history of the grasses . http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/125/3/1198 Photosynthesis —the process of using sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water —has been occurring on earth for around 3 billion years. (At09kg, 2016) BIO 1301, Non -Majors Biology 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title National Geographic. (2017). Permian Period . https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric – world/permian/ Patche99z. (2009). Charles Darwin statue 5661r [Photograph]. Wikimed ia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charles_Darwin_statue_5661r.jpg Pietras, D. (2017). ConEvoEyes2jpg [Photograph]. Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ConEvoEyes2jpg.jpg Pontzer, H. (2012). Overview of hominin evolution . https://ww w.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/overview -of-hominin -evolution -89010983 Royal Ontario Museum (2011). The Cambrian Explosion . https://burgess – shale.rom.on.ca/en/science/origin/04 -cambrian -explosion.php#top -haut University of California Museum of Pa leontology . (n.d. -a). The origin of birds . https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_06 University of California Museum of Paleontology. (n.d. -b). The Proterozoic Eon . http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/precambrian/proterozoic.php
Algebra Unit IV Discussion Board Question In this unit, you learned about lines, angles, circles, polygons, area, and perimeter. Select an object in your home, workplace, or throughout daily life th
HCA 3308 , Health Information Principles and Practice 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit IV Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 4. Identify health information management (HIM) nomenclatures and classification systems. 4.1 Describe the components that make up a core business system. 4.2 Explain the four components of a patient care information system. 7. Explain how current health care information systems support patient safety. 7.1 Determine how communication systems within health care organizations can increase patient safety. 7.2 Discuss how order entry systems can improve patient safety. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 4.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 7 Unit IV Assessment 4.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 7 Unit IV Assessment 7.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 7 Article: “Quantifying the Economic Impact of Communication Inefficiencies in U.S. Hospitals” Unit IV Assessment 7.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 7 Article: “ Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems in Hospitals: Mandates and Incentives” Unit IV Assessment Required Unit Resources Chapter 7: Administrative Information Systems In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Agarwal, R., Sands, D. Z., & Schneider, J. D. (2010). Quantifying the economic impact of communication inefficiencies in U.S. hospitals . Journal of Healthcare Management , 55 (4), 265 –282. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?di re ct=true&db=bsu&AN=53996028&site=ehost -live&scope=site Doolan, D. F., & Bates, D. W. (2002, July -August). Computerized physician order en try systems in hospitals: Mandates and incentives. Health Affairs , 21 (4), 180 –188. https://search -proquest – com.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/docview/204639372?accountid=33337 UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE Health Care Information Systems HCA 3308, Health Information Principles and Practice 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Unit Lesson Types of Health Care Organization Information Systems In hospitals, a health information system (HIS) is used to refer to a system utilized to capture, store, transmit, or facilitate the management of any information related to the health of an individual. In addition, the HIS contains information re garding care providers and the organizations providing care services to the public. In essence, health care organizations use HIS to ensure that information related to diseases, laboratory tests, patients’ administration data, and employment activities are well administered throughout the operations of care institutions. According to Weaver et al. (2016), health care information systems help hospitals improve the aspect of cost control and enhance the timeliness and the accuracy of the care services offered to the patients. In essence, this means that when health care organizations utilize any type of information systems, the hospitals reduce the costs incurred in the management of personnel while increasing the capacity services and the overall quality of p atient care. Thus, with this understanding, this unit will discuss the different types of health care information systems based on the benefits they provide to hospitals, care providers, and patients receiving the services. Electronic Health Records Syst em In health care institutions, electronic health records (EHRs) are a form of an information technology (IT) system used to help health care professionals carry out the task of providing care services successfully. Lanham et al. (2011) argue that, as many hospitals have embraced the benefits of technology in the practice of offering care services, the use of EHRs have often been incorporated with the aim of allowing care providers to conduct their work appropriately in different f orms. In addition, it is apparent that EHRs have enhanced imperative outcomes in the practices carried out in the hospitals, as these systems are helping in the reduction of operational costs, improving the quality of the health care delivery, as well as r eshaping the organizational culture within the hospitals where they are used (Lanham et al., 2011). The reason why the EHR systems at any hospital are viewed as valuable components is that physicians and nurses use the systems to document important infor mation regarding patients. As such, with EHRs in place, the care providers can document patients’ personal information; update patient medication lists; order treatment activities, such as laboratory tests; or give an order for an x -ray or other imaging ex aminations. Conversely, due to the effectiveness of EHRs, doctors can use the system to input treatment results, generate patient panel reports, provide prescriptions, and track the patient recovery to determine if more treatment measures are necessary (La nham et al., 2011). Based on this argument, it is clear that the application of EHRs in hospitals provides benefits to the care providers and patients, as the systems give doctors the opportunity to take actions that are important in responding to certain illnesses. At the same time, the systems are essential to the patients because, as they give physicians the ability to diagnose diseases effectively, the extent to which medical errors occur in hospitals decreases. As a result, improving patients’ outcomes and enhancing the prevention of spreading of specific illnesses is increased. Electronic Medical Record Systems Today, hospitals are using electronic medical record (EMR) systems to record information about the health of the patients and their history. As such, using the systems, health care organizations record important data such as the types of disease that patients are diagnosed with, medicines to be issued, tests, immunization practices, allergies (if any), and the entire treatment plan. Moreover, as the system gives nurses and health care providers the opportunity to make treatment plans, the EMRs can be seen as essential systems that doctors use to make recommendations regarding the task of a patient’s care (Manca, 2015). Other reasons why hospita ls are using EMRs is that the system gives patients a chance to access their medical information easily, regardless of their location (Alpert, 2016). Likewise, when using EMRs, doctors carry out the treatment practices in a timely manner and get instant ac cess to other evaluations required before making a treatment decision. Additionally, Manca (2015) proclaims that the use of EMRs has increased to a higher rate, not only because of the benefits the system is providing to the patients but also because the y have simplified the work of physicians and nurses. Statistically, Manca (2015) found in a research study by the National Physician Survey in 2014 that 75% of the doctors who were interviewed responded that they were using EMRs to make their work more eff ective. In the investigation, 65% of the respondents revealed that due to the use of EMRs, the HCA 3308, Health Information Principles and Practice 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title care programs have improved in the manner whereby the system is creating positive outcomes and enhancing the escalation of care provided by the hospitals (Manca, 2015). The reason that has encouraged physicians to continuously apply EMRs in the treatment programs include the fact that the systems are assisting them to minimize the number of errors that occur when carrying out the treatment activities (Alpert, 2016 ). Ideally, the utilization of EMRs has made health care operations become better organized, and nurses can complete their work in a shorter time due to the availability of information relevant during the treatment practices. Hospital Management System As the use of IT programs has entered the majority of the modern business operations, health care organizations are using hospital management systems (HMSs) as web -based systems set to facilitate the management tasks and functioning of the hospitals. With the benefits that HMSs are bringing to the administrative department in the hospitals, it is apparent that use of web -based systems creates paperless management, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of hospitals. According to Griffin (1995), when health ca re organizations use HMSs, the care center becomes advanced, which is important to ensure that the services it offers are of good quality and that errors that may occur in the operation are detected early and addressed efficiently. For example, in the case s whereby management systems like Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) is applied in the hospital environment, the management improves their operation, especially relating to emergency planning, response, and the manner in which capabilities for planned or unplanned events will be recovered (Shooshtari et al. 2017). In other words, HMSs tend to be essential programs for health care organizations because the systems have the benefit of helping the management team to identify any form of unexpected events threatening the management practices in the hospitals. Patient Care Information System Currently, hospitals are using different IT systems to improve their services, especially in the practice of the patient’s care. Evidently, the implementation of a p atient care information system (PCIS) has allowed doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals to carry out their tasks in the most efficient manner possible. When hospitals apply the PCIS, they increase the timeliness and accuracy of patient care practice, improve the cost control (including the costs that hospitals encounter when managing the HR activities), and increase the services capacity (Drazen et al. 2012). Furthermore, the system makes the patient record task simple and well -structured bec ause, through the use of the computerized program to carry out patient care, clinicians ensure that the patient data is used when making a treatment decision. As PCIS is a system that requires nurses to enter a patient’s medical record directly onto the ho spital computers, it becomes easy to understand the type of illnesses that need to be addressed and the manner in which the treatment course will be executed. Physician Order Entry System Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system is a computerized system that hospitals use in entering and recording medication orders. In many hospitals across the globe, the use of CPOE has been approved due to the benefits that the system is bringing to the health care system. For example, CPOE systems have been promoted and accepted in Australia and in other international states because of the potential that the system has in increasing the quality of care (Georgiou & Westbrook, 2006). In countries in the European region, Asia, and in the United States, CPOE systems are regarded as some of the systems that are on high implementation for health care organizations. Based on this argument, it is evident that CPOE has begun to improve the efficiency and ef fectiveness of the hospitals as the system is mostly being identified for its purpose of enhancing the quality of patient care. CPOE is playing an important role in improving the aspect of ordering decisions, enhancing appropriateness in test processing, a nd making the context of clinical guidelines efficient for doctors attending to patients (Georgiou et al. 2010). When the system is used, doctors receive instructions electronically instead of using papers or written materials, which are time consuming. Th e primary benefit of CPOE is that the system helps physicians avoid making errors that are related to poor handwriting or transcription of medication orders and related information (Doolan & Bates, 2002). It is important to note that CPOE systems are contr ibuting to major changes in the health care system, mostly with regard to the aspect of decision -making and management practices in the hospitals. HCA 3308, Health Information Principles and Practice 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Core Business Systems Core business systems support the health care management team by providing the frame work for reimbursement, support for best practices, resource allocation, and quality control (Mastrian & McGonigle, 2021). They are also used for administrative tasks. The four common core business systems are the (1) admission, discharge, and transfer sys tem; (2) the acuity system; (3) the financial system; and (4) the scheduling system. Admission, discharge, and transfer systems offer the foundation for other business and clinical systems. The acuity systems use specific indicators to monitor the range of patient types within a health care facility. They also classify and identify a patient’s acuity, which promotes better management in terms of expenses and resources for delivering patient care. They also predict future trends for upcoming market demands. Financial systems manage the finances and support operational activities within the health care organization. These systems are used by the finance, accounting, and auditing departments within the organization. The financial systems often interface and sha re information with staffing, billing, and materials management systems. Finally, the scheduling systems coordinate services, staff, equipment, and allocation of patient beds (Mastrian & McGonigle, 2021). Examples of operational activities include payroll, contract, and investment management. In essence, this unit’s lesson has discussed different types of health care information systems as well as the benefits that these systems provide to health care organizations. Indeed, technology is playing a signifi cant role in hospitals. Through the implementation of different systems, doctors are now offering quality care services to the patients, and hospitals are operating effectively, which reduces costs. The reason health care information systems are benefiting the health care organizations is that when used appropriately, the systems are strengthening the decision -making practice in hospitals and the overall management of care practices. Notably, the systems enhance data generation, compilation, analysis, synth esis of information available in the care systems, use of data for patient care, and communication in hospitals. Hence, the systems are allowing physicians to offer the services efficiently and making their performances better and broader to meet the objec tives set by hospitals. References Alpert, J. (2016, April -June). The electronic medical record in 2016: Advantages and disadvantages. Digital Medicine , 2(2), 48 –51. http://link.galegroup.com.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/apps/doc/A462576469/AON E?u=ora n95108&sid=AONE&xid=9f6d6243 Doolan, D. F., & Bates, D. W. (2002, July -August). Computerized physician order entry systems in hospitals: Mandates and incentives. Health Affairs , 21 (4), 180 –188. https://search -proquest – com.libraryresources.columbia southern.edu/docview/204639372?accountid=33337 Drazen, E. L., Metzger, J. B., Ritter, J. L., & Schneider, M. K. (2012). Patient care information systems: Successful design and implementation . Springer Science & Business Media. Georgiou, A., & Westbrook, J. I. (2006, May). Computerised order entry systems and pathology services: A synthesis of the evidence. Clinical Biochemist Reviews , 27 (2), 79 –87. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579412/ Georgiou, A., Westbrook, J., & Braithwaite, J. (2010 ). Computerized provider order entry systems: Research imperatives and organizational challenges facing pathology services. Journal of Pathology Informatics , 1, 1 –11. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login .aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=63030766&site=eds -live&scope=site Griffin, K. M. (1995). Handbook of subacute health care . Aspen. Lanham, H. J., Leykum , L. K., & McDaniel, R. R., Jr. (2011). Same organization, same electronic health records (EHRs) system, different use: Exploring the linkage between practice member communication patterns and EHR use patterns in an ambulatory care setting. Journal of the American HCA 3308, Health Information Principles and Practice 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Medical Informatics Association , 19 (3), 382 –391. https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article/19/3/382/2909167 Manca, D. P. (2015). Do electronic medical records improve quality of care? Yes. Canadian Family Physician , 61 (10), 846 –847. http://www.cfp.c a/content/61/10/846 Mastrian, K. G., & McGonigle, D. (2021). Informatics for health professionals (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781284207118 Shooshtari, S., Tofighi, S., & Abbasi, S. (2017). Benefits, barri ers, and limitations on the use of Hospital Incident Command System. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 22 , 1 –6. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=122780105&site=eds -live&scope=site Weaver, C. A., Ball, M. J., Kim, G. R., & Kiel, J. M. (Eds.). (2016). Healthcare information management systems: Cases, strategies, and solutions (4th ed.). Springer.