Psyc 338 psychology of gender – applied final project
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THIS ASSIGNMENT IS GENDER-RELATED and authentic.
Please see the attachments for examples, expectations, and grading Rubric details.
Final Project: Training Program Design Project
Guidelines: You have been hired to consult at a large corporation on these two projects:
1. Design a training course to help employees deal with gender issues at work.
2. Write a report reflecting on how your course will improve understanding and ways of relating among employees.
culture and history: describe cultural and historical influences on conceptions of gender and other forms of diversity
gender differences: discuss research findings on gender differences and similarities in aggression, achievement, and communication.
relationships: identify gender issues in friendships and romantic relationships
gender expectations: explain the impact of gender, gender role expectations, and gender stereotypes on work roles and physical and mental health
Heavenly Honey Corporation
Employee Diversity Training
Promoting Gender Sensitivity in the Workplace
April 27, 2018
University of Maryland University College – PSYC 338
ALL-GEN PERSONALIZED DIVERSITY TRAINING PROGRAMS
Table of Contents
Introduction of Training Course Design……………………………….3
Final Training Report……………………………………………….…..17-18
Introduction – Training Course Design
The following employee training course was designed by an outside party (All-Gen,
Corp.) to provide model practices for sponsoring a nondiscriminatory workplace for employees
who are female, male, gay, lesbian, transgender, or bisexual. Gender sensitivity indicates respect
for all individual regardless of his or her gender. Gender sensitivity involves achieving a better
awareness of the needs, ambitions, abilities, and professional value of ALL employees without
prejudice of gender. A gender sensitive workplace generates the right atmosphere to achieve
optimal utilization of each human potential in the work environment setting.
The training will involve 12 participants in different levels of management and
administrative positions within the corporation. The participants are various gender, sexual
orientation, and ages. The training course goal is to create an atmosphere where all employees
are treated with dignity and respect. The objective of the course is to create an awareness among
the working professionals about the importance of gender sensitivity in the workplace. Each of
the 12 participants were asked to provide gender sensitivity concerns in advance which they have
come across in their professional career. The training sessions were designed utilizing a training
needs assessment aided in identifying and prioritizing what capacities (knowledge, attitude and
skill) the training should focus on. These concerns and issues were implemented into the
development of the general structure of the training course. The course is divided into eight, two-
hour sessions with each session designed to assist in understanding and recommending measures
on how the organization can take action to become more gender sensitive on the employee
provided aspects of gender diversity.
James Coleman, Chief Executive Officer – 54-year-old married, white male
with three children. Son of Milton Coleman, founder of the Heavenly Honey
Corporation. James was born and raised in Thomasville, Georgia. James
attended Georgia Southern University Business College where he earned his
MBA. James has successfully grown the business from his father’s small home town company to
a major East Coast corporation. James’ gender concern is finding ways to bring men into the
conversation on gender equality and how to take steps toward breaking down those expectations
of both genders. James also wants to make sure his company employees have a firm
understanding of all forms of sexual harassment.
Jennifer Coleman, Chief Financial Officer- 53-year-old married, white
female with three children. Jennifer is married to the CEO of the corporation,
James. Jennifer and James met at GSU during her senior year of college where
she earned a Master of Science in Applied Economics. Jennifer has worked the
corporation since college graduation. She has taken maternity leave three separate times with
each of her children. Jennifer’s concerns are the challenges working women face with balancing
domestic workloads and children responsibilities. Jennifer feels she works as much and as hard
as her husband but does not get the same down time at home as he does.
Derrick Johnson, Vice President of Operations – 62-year-old married black
male with six children. Derrick has been with the corporation for 43 years, where
he started out working in the field alongside the founder Milton as a right-hand
man. Derrick is the one who makes sure company operations flow smoothly and
economically. Derrick is responsible for making certain that necessary work is done properly and
on time. He has a full understanding of details of the business from the bottom up. Derrick has
concerns with the fight for gender equality, saying women have become too obsessed with the
fight against sexual harassment and assault and is worried that some men might be wrongly
accused He is worried that the push for gender equality is moving too far, too fast and has
concerns about the possibility that men may face false allegations.
David Guildsman, Marketing Manager – 39-year-old white male. David is a
gay man in a five-year committed relationship. David started working for the
company eight years ago. David started out as assistant marketing manager and
was promoted to manager four years ago. David and his partner Ivan have
decided to adopt a child in the upcoming months. David has concerns with being able to take
adequate paternity leave. He feels more policies are needed to ensure fathers have the support
they need to prioritize their family responsibilities, while also meeting work demands.
Benjamin Munson, Quality Control Manager – 32-year-old white male,
recently engaged. Benjamin worked for a food packing corporation before
coming to the company. Benjamin has a bachelor’s degree in Quality
Management from University of Minnesota. His job is to ensure that
manufacturing production lines run smoothly and generate a consistently suitable output for their
employers. He also supervises the Quality Control functions/activities including quality control
inspection schedules and the collection of quality records. Benjamin has been with the company
for only 9 months. He would like attention brought to the gender role expectations placed on
men to be dominant and powerful, and women to be passive and subservient in the workplace.
Jessica Beal, Assistant Quality Control Manager – 40-year-old single,
Hispanic female with no children. Jessica is responsible for handling OSHA
compliance, EPA compliance, monitoring product quality, training of
employees in each of these areas and filing all necessary monthly, quarterly
and yearly reports. Jessica has been with the company for 11 years and was recently passed over
for a promotion to Manager. Jessica would like to discuss the “glass ceiling” effect. The glass
ceiling is the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from rising to the highest
ranks in a corporation.
Manuel Montalvo, Operations Manager – 38-year-old Hispanic, male.
Manuel is from Puerto Rico and is married with two children. Manuel
obtained his MBA at Stetson University in Florida. Manuel moved the
United States when he was ten years old and lived with his Aunt and Uncle in Florida. Manuel
worked all through high school to put himself through college. Manuel is responsible for the
oversight of the production of goods and services for the business. He deals with multiple
departments, including purchasing, warehousing and manufacturing. His focus is on the
happiness of the clients and customers based on the quality of product they are receiving. Manuel
has a gender sensitivity concern that men in the company do not recognize their male privilege or
see how their passing comments affect their women colleagues. Manuel believes men are not
trained to recognize the signs of sexism.
Clair Sunder, Human Resource Manager – 32-year-old unmarried,
Asian/white female. Clair has a master’s in human resource management from
the University of Alabama. Clair oversees the human resources department and
insures the functions and tasks are being carried out properly by the HR team. Clair is often seen
as the link between the organization’s management and its employees and can provided
consultation on strategic planning with top executives to recruiting, interviewing, and hiring new
staff. Clair has concerns that some women have reported higher levels of incivility from other
women than from their male co-workers. Clair believes that women may be mistreating other
women because they are often viewed as competition for advancement opportunities in
companies. Clair worries that women can be part of the “glass ceiling” effect for other women.
Mathew Jenkins, Field Service Manager – 66-year-old white male, married
with three grown children. Mathew oversees employees who travel to work in
sites or in the field. Their main task is to supervise people on a site, ensuring
everyone on the team is performing their responsibilities in the field. Mathew
has concerns about the discrimination against women in the beekeeping jobs which demand
physical strength. He is concerned about discrimination against women seeking such positions.
Buddy Whitman, Lead Field Supervisor – 48-year-old white divorced
male. Buddy joined the company 20 years ago as an apiarist. He now
provides direct supervision of field crew during apiary inspections and
monitors activities. He also assesses project sites to ensure tasks are
completed as directed and provides feedback to workers on their performance. He also trains
junior staff on correct beekeeping techniques. Buddy would like to strengthen the working
relationship between his mostly male and fewer female employees and lead by example. Two
key challenges that face females in this predominately male career is a lack of support from their
colleagues and a lack of equal income.
Naomi Veltz, Assistant Field Supervisor – 32-year-old gay, black, single
female. Naomi has been with the company for 11 years and prides herself on
never missing a day. Naomi is responsible for working with field workers
(mainly males) in all aspects of beekeeping work. Naomi performs general beekeeping jobs
requiring manual labor. Naomi’s gender concern is that she must fight twice as hard as her male
counterparts to gain credibility in the beekeeping field. Naomi also mentioned another challenge
which is the “boys’ club” mentality. Women deal with a not fitting in because they are a female.
This can create a tough work dynamic.
Judith McKay, Office Manager – 68-year-old white married female. Judith
has been with the company since the early years. Judith provides both clerical
and administrative support to the office professionals, either as part of a team
or individually. She is involved with the coordination and implementation of
office procedures and frequently has the responsibility for specific projects and tasks. Judith feels
that a gender concern is that it is harder for older women to find jobs than it is for older men.
Session One Topic: Welcome, Introductions and Brief Review of Gender Equality
The first session of “Promoting Gender Sensitivity in the Workplace Training Program” will
consist of welcoming participants to the training program and having the participants introduce
themselves to the group. The session will discuss how gender identities and gender relations are
critical aspects of culture. The session will touch on the historic changes in conceptions of
gender, and examine femininities, masculinities in their historical context (Wedad Andrada,
2016).. The session will discuss gender inequality as one of the most important challenges in
modern societies, despite the progress and substantial advances that have been made in the past
century. The session will explain the importance of the training program due to the remaining
significant gender gaps in many areas including; the pay gap, social norms and practices,
education, political participation and social institutions (Wedad Andrada, 2016).
Session One Activity: Icebreaker Game, Diversity Bingo
Bingo-type scorecards will be given to each employee and each square should consist of
statements such as “a person who speaks a second language” or “a person who is Catholic.” Each
employee must circulate through the workplace seeking to obtain the signature of a person to
whom a statement applies. After a short period of time, the participants will discuss topics such
as which squares were the easiest to fill and what initial perceptions they had about each other
were proven wrong during the game (Fagnani, 2017).
Session Two Topic: Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
(Addressing James’ concerns with sexual harassment education and how to avoid being
The session will begin with defining sexual harassment in the workplace. According to
O’Malley, Sellers, & Sherwyn (2017), it is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or
employee) because of that person’s sex. Harassment can include “sexual harassment” or
unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment
of a sexual nature. Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature and can include offensive
comments about a person’s sex (O’Malley, Sellers, & Sherwyn, 2017). For example, it is illegal
to harass a woman by making offensive comments about the female sex in general. The victim or
the harasser can be either a woman or a man, and the victim and harasser can be of the same sex.
Offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very serious are not illegal, however,
harassment is illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work
environment or when it results in an adverse employment decision (O’Malley, Sellers, &
Sherwyn, 2017). The harasser can be the victim’s supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-
worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client or customer.
Training Activity: Identifying Sexual Harassment Game – Four Corners.
There will be signs put up in the four corners of the room that say, “Agree,” “Disagree,”
“Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree.” The trainer will read aloud statements about
harassment, for example, “Women who dress provocatively want to be looked at.” The
participants will walk to the corner that best defines thoughts on the statement. The people in
each corner will discuss their choice for a few minutes, then a spokesperson will explain the
group’s view. Repeat the process with a new statement (Freeman, 2017).
Session Three Topic: Gender Role Bias
(Addressing Jennifer and Benjamin’s concern of gender role expectations at work and
Women’s role as the mother, housekeeper, and supporter has extended into the workplace. The
gender stereotype of men being ambitious and assertive and women as being upportive and
nurturing has shaped what is expected of women in a work environment (Lester, 2008). Often
men are expected to be assertive, confident, and domineering and when lacking such
characteristics are told to develop those skills while women who exhibit the same characteristics
are told to step back and viewed as being too assertive or abrasive. Hidden forms of gender bias
can discourage women to grow beyond constrained clichés because of fear of repercussions
(Lester, 2008). The session will discuss how the company and its employees can take a step in
breaking down gender biases by building a well-rounded team with both men and women in rich
roles that extend beyond the stereotypes. The training will highlight the hidden forms of gender
bias that seeps into performance evaluations, first impressions, maternity bias, and likability
while creating a forum for discussion to diminish its negative effects.
Session Three Activity: Gender Stereotype – Toy Shopping
Have participants shop in the provided toy catalogs for a child who is celebrating her or his 5th
birthday. Half the participants should shop for a girl and half should shop for a boy. Ask the
group to search for toys they thought of themselves (and not just to search for boys or girls toys).
In 5-7 minutes, they should choose a toy to give as a gift to their child. After they have chosen
the toy, each person should individually answer and discuss their purchases. This activity will
give the group a sense of how gender stereotypes are taught early in life and extend into
adulthood (Gender Stereotypes Activity, n.d.).
Session Four Topic: The Glass Ceiling
(Addressing Clair and Jessica’s concern of the “glass ceiling” effect)
The session will discuss the term “glass ceiling” which is used to describe the limits placed on
either women or minorities, who are unable to advance in the workplace due to gender and/or
race. Many women claim there are obstacles set in place which keep them from achieving the
success equivalent to men. According to Rahim, Akintunde, Afolabi, & Okikiola, (2018),
common reported obstacles include:
Prejudice: Men are promoted more quickly than women with equivalent qualifications,
even in traditionally female settings such as nursing and education.
Resistance to women’s leadership: People view successful female managers as more
deceitful, pushy, selfish, and abrasive than successful male managers.
Leadership style issues: Many female leaders struggle to reconcile qualities people
prefer in women (compassion for others) with qualities people think leaders need to
succeed (assertion and control).
Family demands: Women are still the ones who interrupt their careers to handle
work/family trade-offs. Overloaded, they lack time to engage in the social networking
essential to advancement.
Session Four Activity: Board Game “A Journey to Gender Equality”
“A Journey to Gender Equality”, a board game to address gender equality. The game is a fun
and strategic board game, involving resources management, strategic thinking and achieves a
good balance between chance, surprise element and strategy. Each player embarks on a journey
to create a society from complete gender inequality to gender equality. Players will experience
the struggle of extreme gender inequality at the first stage of game and gradually feel the benefits
of a gender equal society. (Journey to Gender Equality, 2018).
Session Five Topic: Can Men Be Victims of Workplace Discrimination?
(Addressing Derrick’s concern of men becoming victims of reverse discrimination)
Human Resource professionals are familiar with looking out for the warning signs of potential
claims of sex discrimination against women. But what about sex discrimination against men?
This session will discuss examples of how employee and employers’ actions against men can
lead to sex discrimination claims in the workplace (Abel, & Meltzer, 2007).
Common male discrimination complaints:
Asked or expected to handle physically dangerous or difficult tasks
Given less latitude to depart from meetings or other tasks without explanation
Expected to work longer hours or to be more available
Not given the same family-related scheduling flexibility or leave benefits (paternity), or
being disadvantaged or abused for considering or exercising such benefits
Ridiculed, excluded or otherwise disadvantaged by individual colleagues of the opposite
Workplace environment more supportive of clients of the opposite gender
Treated as potentially dangerous to employees of the opposite gender
Unequal scrutiny of gender-appropriate interest in persons of the opposite gender
Received disapproval rather than support when expressing emotion
Observed a colleague of the opposite gender being hired, retained, supported, or
promoted due to supervisor’s sexual interest
Expected, by supervisors or colleagues, to pursue workplace opportunities to earn money
for the benefit of a nonworking spouse or partner
Session Five Activity: “How Gender Bias Are You?” Pop Quiz
This activity will be performed at the beginning of the session. The quiz can help uncover
everyone’s subconscious beliefs and biases they might not be aware exist. The quiz will be from
Project Implicit, a non-profit organization and international collaboration between researchers
who are interested in implicit social cognition, thoughts and feelings outside of conscious
awareness and control (ProjectImplicit, n.d.). The group will discuss their results before
proceeding to the session’s topic.
Session Six Topic: Male Privilege – Real or Imagined?
(Addressing Manuel’s concern of male privilege)
This session will discuss male privilege. Privilege is the advantages that people benefit from
based solely on their social status. It is a status that is conferred by society to certain groups, not
seized by individuals, which is why it can be difficult sometimes to see one’s own privilege.
Male privilege is a set of privileges that are given to men as a class due to their institutional
power in relation to women as a class. While every man experiences privilege differently due to
his own individual position in the social hierarchy, every man, by being read as male by society,
benefits from male privilege (Case, Hensley, & Anderson, 2014).
Session Activity: The Privilege Walk
Throughout the privilege walk, statements are read by the trainer and the participants are asked
to take a step forward or backward based on their responses. This activity forces participants to
confront the ways in which society privileges some individuals over others. It is designed to get
participants to reflect on the different areas in their lives where they have privilege as well as the
areas where they don’t. Sample of the questions are:
If your ancestors were forced to come to the USA not by choice, take one step back.
If your primary ethnic identity is “American,” take one step forward.
If you were ever called names because of your race, class, ethnicity, gender, or sexual
orientation, take one step back.
If there were people who worked for your family as servants, gardeners, nannies, etc. take
one step forward.
If you were ever ashamed or embarrassed of your clothes, house, car, etc. take one step
If one or both of your parents were “white collar” professionals: doctors, lawyers, etc.
take one step forward.
If you were raised in an area where there was prostitution, drug activity, etc., take one
Session Seven Topic: Non-Traditional Careers
(Addressing Mathew, Buddy and Naomi’s concern of non-traditional occupations)
A non-traditional career is defined as one where more than 75 percent of the workforce is of the
opposite gender or where less than 25 percent of the workforce is of your gender. For women,
many non-traditional careers fall into a few broad categories of jobs: labor-intensive,
scientific/technical, and supervisory. While fewer non-traditional careers are available for men
than for women, these careers tend to involve education, health, and service-related jobs
(McDowell, 2015). The session will address the pros and cons of working in a non-traditional
career and discuss how career choice is significantly influenced by tradition and the way
individuals are socialized. Men and women are often unaware of the variety of alternative
careers that are available to them. This is particularly helpful for individuals responsible for
hiring for a non-traditional position. The session will discuss the benefits of pursuing non-
traditional careers and the positive impact on society. Workers who are among the first of their
gender to succeed in a non-traditional career can open the door for others to follow (McDowell,
Session Seven Activity: Show and Tell
Show and tell can be a fun, low-pressure way to help people learn about each other. The
participants were asked in the previous session to bring in a non-traditional article placed in the
provided bag which reflected something about themselves (favorite recipe, an interesting article,
a family photo). At the start of the session, the bags with the items are put on a table where the
trainer reveals the item and the group must guess who the item belongs to. The individual with
the most correct guesses wins. This will allow others to see a non-traditional side to each person
in the group.
Session Eight – Women and Age Discrimination – The Double Whammy
(Addressing Judith’s concern of Age and Gender discrimination)
Women experience age discrimination in hiring and the inequity intensifies with age. The older
the woman, the less likely she is to hear back from potential employers compared to men.
Women experience discrimination and are seen as “older” at a younger age (Santora & Seaton,
2008). The session will address two possible theories for why older women may suffer from age
discrimination more than older men: one is that age discrimination laws do not deal effectively
with the situation of older women who face both age and gender bias; the other possibility
touches on society’s focus on the physical appearance of women, a scrutiny that does not seem to
similarly impact men (Santora & Seaton, 2008). This final session will also recap the previous
material and have allotted Q&A time.
Session Eight Activity: Office Trivia – Older vs. Younger
The activity will be divided into two groups, 6 of the oldest, and 6 of the youngest members.
Each team will be asked 20-25 trivia questions about their workplace. Ex. “What color are the
kitchen tiles?” “How many people are in the sales department?” “How many windows are there
in the entire office?” “What brand are the computer monitors?” “What month of the year is most
common for birthdays among our employees?” This is a quick team building activity that tests
how observant each team is, and how age might be an advantage in certain situations.
Final Training Report
After implementing the training program at Heavenly Honey, our consulting firm, All-Gen, feels
that the participants now have a greater understanding of gender sensitivity in the workplace. We
feel the participants will now be better capable to open up communications between the sexes
and bring a stronger mutual understanding and respect of each other’s roles. Our firm has
suggestions based on input and issues presented during the training program that we feel would
serve the corporation’s best interest if they were respectfully addressed. According to Glynn,
Fisher, & Baxter, (n.d.) of American Progress some changes to consider are as follows:
1) Consider hiring women for senior roles in the corporation. Companies that aren’t hiring
women for senior roles should consider what barriers they’ve constructed that prevents
women from filling them. Reducing years of experience for example would allow more
women to qualify for these positions. Employers should consider including other types of
experience that broadens the pool of possible candidates.
2) Hiring managers should circulate resumes with names removed, so women are not
discriminated against. Candidates should not need to explain multiyear gaps in their
resumes, which for women, are almost always due to raising a family or illness.
3) Offering women the same work opportunities as men. If men spend time with senior
executives, work on the most important projects or meet the most valuable clients, they
become more impressive candidates for promotions. Companies should have processes in
place, so all employees meet the same standards as they progress through their careers,
which helps ensure they all get the same exposure to training and opportunities.
4) Minimize the pay gap. Every position should have a set pay range, with the allowance
for exceptions for special cases only. Employers should also audit their payroll, and
increase pay for women who have been short-changed. Pay transparency could give
women better tools to address pay discrimination and make it more difficult for male
workers to be paid more than female workers. This can be an important tool in
combatting the gender wage gap.
5) Women mentoring other women is an ideal strategy to enable skill development and
build networks, increasing employee engagement and retention. It can be hard for women
to gain access in many male dominated work cultures. Women can easily find themselves
adrift without the “inside” knowledge that would empower them to be most
effective. Companies with mentoring programs shouldn’t insist on same sex matches. In
firms with few senior women, they’re spread too thin and junior women get less
6) Offer more paid leave which would help reduce the gaps in women’s work histories and
help retain employees. This would also benefit men who would like the same paternity
leave after a child is born or adopted or have options to take leave for family
Abel, M. H., & Meltzer, A. L. (2007). Student Ratings of a Male and Female Professors’ Lecture
on Sex Discrimination in the Workforce. Sex Roles, 57(3-4), 173-180. Doi:
Case, K. A., Hensley, R., & Anderson, A. (2014). Reflecting on Heterosexual and Male
Privilege: Interventions to Raise Awareness. Journal of Social Issues, 70(4), 722-740.
Fagnani, S. (2017, November 21). Diversity Training Activities in the Workplace. Retrieved
Freeman, J. M. (2017, July 25). Harassment Training Exercises. Retrieved from
Gender Stereotypes Activity. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://breakingprejudice.org/teaching/group-
Glynn, S. J., Fisher, M., & Baxter, E. (n.d.). 7 Actions that Could Shrink the Gender Wage Gap.
Journey to Gender Equality (Board Game to address gender equality). (2018, March 27).
Retrieved from https://linyingwang.wordpress.com/portfolio/board-game-to-address-
Lester, J. (2008). Performing Gender in the Workplace. Community College Review, 35(4), 277-
McDowell, J. (2015). Masculinity and Non-Traditional Occupations: Men’s Talk in Women’s
Work. Gender, Work & Organization, 22(3), 273-291.
O’Malley, S., Sellers, J., & Sherwyn, D. (2017). Workplace Sexual Harassment: Will the latest
charges lead to a shift in corporate culture? CQ Researcher, 27(38), 893-917.
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Rahim, G., Akintunde, O., Afolabi, A., & Okikiola, O. (2018). The Glass Ceiling Conundrum:
Illusory belief or Barriers that impede Women’s Career Advancement in the
Workplace. Journal of Evolutionary Studies in Business, Vol 3, Iss 1, Pp 137-166 (2018),
(1), 137. doi:10.1344/jesb2018.1.j040
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(2016), (2), 143.
TRAINING COURSE FOR HUGS EMPLOYEES 25
Training Course for HUGS Employees: Creating Awareness of Gender Issues in the Workplace
University of Maryland University College
Table of Contents
Final Training Report…………………………………………………………………………….18
Helping Us Grow Stronger, or HUGS, is a non-for-profit corporation for adults who are suffering from mental illnesses. These community day centers exist all over the United States. The clients, or the individuals attending this day program, require some daily assistance and are not able to live fully functional lives on their own at that point in time. HUGS offers a variety of activities during the day such as support groups, physical activity, other types of activity groups, current events, local outings, sheltered workshop groups, and free lunch and transportation. HUGS has been around for 20 years and has been a great source for the many adults suffering from mental illnesses who have attended.
The HUGS community day center in Baltimore, Maryland currently has 38 clients who attend this center on a daily basis with some of them coming and going as they recover and are able to move on. In addition, this specific center is made up of 30 employees with different types of backgrounds, races, cultures, etc. Unfortunately, there have been some recent observations, concerns, and experiences regarding gender issues that have been brought up by a few of the employees. Because of these recent issues, consulting psychologists with years of experience in the gender field have been brought in.
Twelve employees of HUGS were interviewed, after volunteering, and allowed to report their observations, concerns, and experiences to these consulting psychologists. Employees brought up a number of gender-related issues. Among them were such topics as sexual harassment, pay disparity, and power differences. To address these gender related issues, and to increase awareness of what can be done about them, these consulting psychologists have devised a training program for the 12 employees that work in this specific center of HUGS. In addition, this training course consists of eight weeks of sessions with each week focusing on a different topic pertaining to gender issues in the workplace. This goal of these various sessions is to increase the comfort of the employees, both men and women, of HUGS, in the workplace and bring to attention ways in which these gender issues can be resolved.
Beth is a 28 year old Caucasian woman who is the assistant program director of this center in Baltimore, Maryland. Beth has been with HUGS for three years, originally starting out as a group leader. She was promoted in less than a year to the assistant program director by Bob, the program director. Per Beth: Ever since I began working at HUGS, Bob has been making subtle gestures and comments in my direction such as winking and saying things such as “sweetheart.” I addressed my feelings with him that these things made me feel uncomfortable and he responded by saying that he can promote me to the assistant program director if I didn’t say anything. I am making a lot more money than I thought I would be here so I wasn’t hesitant to take the position. However, I am having second doubts now as these gestures and comments are beginning to worsen.
Audrey is a 32 year old Caucasian woman who helps to run the activity groups. She has been running activity groups at this HUGS center for five years now and enjoys her time there helping the clients. She has recently been chatting with another male employee about pay, although this has been advised not to do. Per Audrey: I don’t want to say any names, but a male coworker and I have been chatting about our pay rates and his is much higher than mine. However, he has been there for only a year and I have put in five years of my times into this company. We have the same experience and educational backgrounds, so it’s a bit frustrating.
Gwen is a 27 year old African American woman who also helps to run the activity groups. She has had much experience working as a group leader in the mental health field and has much to offer to HUGS. So far, Gwen has been working at this center for a little over two years. Per Gwen: I think everything goes great around here but I have some suggestions based on things that have worked in my past experiences. I have brought up my suggestions in multiple team meetings but none of the higher-ups seems to take them seriously.
Evelyn is a 41 year old Caucasian woman who is the secretary at this center. Evelyn has been with HUGS for 12 years and really enjoys working as the secretary. Per Evelyn: I really like my work here and I think the other staff members feel as if they can really rely on me as their secretary. However, some of the younger men seem to like to whistle at me as they walk past. I know it’s nothing serious, but I feel as if since I am holding a stereotypically female job, that they feel as if they have control over me and that I am seen as inferior to them because of this.
Penny is a 20 year old Caucasian woman who is a psychology student intern at this HUGS center. She is in the process of obtaining her bachelor’s degree in psychology from a small local university and is in the middle of her six month long internship here. Per Penny: I have quite enjoyed my time here with HUGS so far and I have learned a lot about mental health in general. However, I have a strong interest in physical activity as it relates to mental health and my internship coordinator continues to place me as a leader in social skills and craft groups. It’s not that I don’t think these things are important, but my interest really lies within another area and I would really like to gain experience in that area. I have spoken to my internship coordinator a few times and he is friendly yet somewhat hesitant to allow me a part in the physical activity groups. Also, another one of the group leaders, Hector, is often looking and staring at me from across the room. It makes me very uncomfortable.
Rosa is a 35 year old Hispanic woman who is in charge of the cleaning and laundry at this center. Rosa has been with HUGS for just under 10 years and has remained in the same position with a similar wage to when she first began. Per Rosa: When I first came to America I applied for my position with HUGS and was immediately hired for the cleaning and laundry position, with hopes of moving up in positions. Since I have been working here I have been a great employee – I am always on time, I am friendly to everyone, and the clients really seem to like me. I feel as if I can offer more to this company but the higher-ups seem uncertain about this. Perhaps it’s because I am from Mexico.
Bob is a 45 year old Caucasian man who is the program director of this center in Baltimore, Maryland. Bob has been with HUGS for over 20 years now, starting out as a group leader and moving up quickly in promotions. It is evident that he has conformed to the traditional gender role attitude and this has carried over into his position at this center. Per Bob: I am the program director here at HUGS so I am in charge of basically everything, except for the CEO of the company of course. I know who the best people for each of our positions here are but other employees are coming up to me at times and asking for raises, promotions, different positions, etc. It makes me mad to know that certain employees don’t trust my judgment. Beth, my assistant program director is basically the only woman who listens to me and will do anything I ask of her.
Spencer is a 39 year old Caucasian man who is the Human Resources Manager of this center. He has been with HUGS for eight years now and has been promoted a few years ago from group leader to Human Resources Manager. Per Spencer: I like working at HUGS and I enjoy working with all of my co-workers. As Human Resources Manager, I am here to improve the performance of the other employees and improve their comfort level here at HUGS. I have noticed another female employee appears to be depressed lately but every time I go up to her to try and talk and figure out what’s going on, she says she fine. Her performance has remained the same, but because of my job title, it’s my duty to address these kinds of issues.
Isaac is a 26 year old Asian man who helps to run the activity groups. He has been with HUGS for two years now and has been going through some difficult times at home due to taking care of his sick father. Per Isaac: My time here at HUGS has been a great experience thus far. However, I am dealing with a few things at home that are causing me to feel a bit down lately. I have tried to address my issue with the Human Resources Manager, but he simply told me to man up and I will get through it.
Kyle is a 38 year old Caucasian man who does the cooking for this center and steps in at times to help run activity groups. Kyle is also homosexual. Kyle has been with HUGS for 15 years so far and the clients absolutely love him and the fun he brings to this center. Per Kyle: I love my job here at HUGS and I consider it a career here. I think I bring a great attitude to this place and I would love to be the group leader supervisor one day. Others have been promoted and hired for this position that have been here less time than me and I am starting to wonder if it is my sexual orientation that is holding them back.
Hector is a 30 year old Hispanic man who helps to run the activity groups. He has been with HUGS for four years now and is often very quiet. Per Hector: I like working here but I sometimes get negative comments from some of the younger women. They often say I have a staring problem but I really have not noticed that.
Ezekiel is a 23 year old African American man who is a psychology student intern. He has recently started a couple of months ago for his yearlong graduate student internship in counseling psychology. Per Ezekiel: I have adjusted well so far to HUGS and have had a great experience here just within the last couple of months. My focus is in counseling psychology and I would love to run some of the support-type groups. For some reason I have been placed in charge of current events groups and physical activity groups. I have addressed this issue with my internship coordinator here at HUGS multiple times but nothing has come of it yet.
Based on the interviews between these 12 employees of HUGS and the consulting psychologists, the consulting psychologists devised the following eight sessions to be completed over a period of eight weeks to address the found issues related to gender. Each session will of course lead to more appropriate interactions, tolerance of differences, and how to approach problems relating to gender in the workplace.
The focus of Session One will be Gender Stereotypes in the workplace. The objective for this session is to make employees aware of the gender stereotypes that exist at work and to make them aware of the implications for these gender stereotypes. Women and men are seen differently based on their abilities and this could lead to stereotype threat, which is the negative effect of stereotypes and labeling on one’s performance based on their gender (Helgeson, 2012, p. 196). This session will create a general awareness of these things as these issues are oftentimes hiding in the shadows. This session will be primarily a group discussion of stereotypes such as one that would take place within a school classroom, including each employee’s opinion of what counts as a stereotype and what can be done to reduce stereotypes in the workplace. The employee, Spencer, has brought attention to this gender issue as he is stereotyping against women vs. men in the diagnosis of depression. Depression is often seen as a “feminine” disorder and Spencer demonstrates his stereotype of this.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/15910/1/List-of-Gender-Stereotypes.html. This particular website includes everything and anything that relates to help and guidance for mental and physical health, including gender related issues at the workplace. This page in particular focuses on some of the gender stereotypes that exist at work, which are shown to be different for women and men. Other viewers of this particular page have rated the information as accurate and helpful.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are Occupational Stereotypes: Activation of Male Bias in a Gender-Neutral World is about how using gender-neutral language rather than male-biased language can buffer against the use and abuse of female stereotypes upon mention of a female employee or co-worker (Lassonde & O’Brien, 2013). And, Is the Ratio of Women to Men a Powerful Determinant? is about how traditionally male-orientated jobs vs. traditionally female-oriented jobs tend to carry more gender stereotypes about the same and opposite gender (Adachi, 2013).
The focus of Session Two will be Ambivalent Sexism in the workplace. The objective for this session is to aid the employees in understanding sexism and that there are multiple kinds of sexism. Both hostile and benevolent sexism can take place at work, but both of them can lead to negative attitudes about women (Helgeson, 2012, p. 71). After this session, employees will be able to identify and describe each type of sexism and list examples that would fall under each. In this session, each male will be randomly paired up with a female after a brief discussion of what each type of sexism means. Each partner will have to verbalize to the other a type of hostile sexism and a type of benevolent sexism that they have experienced at the workplace within their lifetime. All names will remain anonymous. Then, each partner will have the opportunity to rotate to another partner so that each person will have the opportunity to discuss their experiences with each other person of the opposite gender. Bob, the program director has brought to attention this gender related issue of sexism by believing that he is superior to women.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: http://www.equalrights.org/legal-help/know-your-rights/sex-discrimination-at-work/. This website is from the Equal Rights Advocates, which is an organization designed to improve the image of women and girls in society in addition to advocating for them to have equal opportunities. This particular webpage in this website focuses on the discrimination that women face at work, including various definitions, examples, resources, and what can be done about it.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are: When Female Applicants Meet Sexist Interviewers: The Costs of Being a Target of Benevolent Sexism is about how male interviewers with ambivalent sexism negatively impact the hiring of women based on competence, ratings, and hierability (Good, & Rudman, 2010). And, The Emotional Impact of Ambivalent Sexism: Forecasts Versus Real Experiences is about the impact of interpretations of ambivalent sexism – in fact, it states that women often underestimate the negative impact that benevolent sexism can have on their work performance even though benevolent sexism sounds more positive than hostile sexism (Bosson, Pinel, & Vandello, 2010).
The focus of Session Three will be Sexual Harassment in the workplace. The objective for this session is to identify behaviors and actions that fall under the category of sexual harassment in addition to reducing these behaviors and actions. There are different types of sexual harassment that can occur in the workplace and it can be defined differently by different individuals (Helgeson, 2012, p. 475 & 476). Again, a discussion will begin this session in addition to any employee who would like to share a story of sexual harassment if they have encountered it within their place of work. And again, all names will remain anonymous. Following, a series of training videos will be viewed by the employees about sexual harassment in the workplace and the types of things that can be done to fix this. Beth in particular has brought to attention this issue, as she believes a case of sexual harassment is currently happening to her at HUGS.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: http://www.aauw.org/what-we-do/legal-resources/know-your-rights-at-work/workplace-sexual-harassment/. This website is the website for the American Association of University Women and is all about advocacy for women, including a range of topics that pertain to their education, research, and the voice that they have today. This particular page includes information on understanding women’s rights in the workplace that are related to sexual harassment.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are: Impact of Work Experience on Attitudes toward Sexual Harassment is about various theories that explain the gender differences in perception of what counts as sexual harassment in the workplace and what does not (Konrad, & Gutek, 1986). And, Sexual Harassment Training: Recommendations to Address Gaps between the Practitioners and Research Literatures is about how there should exist a bridge between practitioner literature and actual research literature as the two are very different; in addition, there are suggestions for the human resources personal along the lines of improving the training quality for the sexual harassment training in the workplace (Perry, Kulik, & Field, 2009).
The focus of Session Four will be Pay Disparity in the workplace. The objective for this session is to identify the discrimination involved in the workplace between men and women involving the pay disparity. There are many differences in the wage gap that exists for genders, cultures, and ages (Helgeson, 2012, p. 461). A discussion on the pay disparity will start off the session and the possible reasons behind it will be explained. Employees will have an opportunity to share and then will read a packet and answer questions about their reading that pertain to this pay disparity. This reading and the questions will consist of general information about the wage gap in addition to vignette scenarios regarding anonymous people. The vignette scenarios will be read and employees will have a chance to analyze the situations. Everyone will have the opportunity to share their ideas at the end.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: http://www.aauw.org/fairpay/?gclid=CN3h06Kx670CFbFFMgodIS8A5g. This is another webpage from the American Association of University Women. This specific page focuses on how women can fight for the same pay that men have. There are a variety of facts and blogs about the pay disparity in addition to what can be done to change this gap.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are: The Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults in the United States is about some of the various factors that may account for the differences in earnings at work between men and women, with the importance of money vs. work being a strong factor (Fortin, 2008). The Sexual Orientation Wage Gap: The Role of Occupational Sorting and Human Capital is about how human capitol along the lines of education has a greater impact then the type or title of the job on the gender pay disparity, as was studied on heterosexual and homosexual people (Antecol, Jong, & Steinberger, 2008).
The focus of Session Five will be the Glass Ceiling Effect in the workplace. The objective for this session is to bring to attention the glass ceiling effect that occurs in the workplace and some ways in which this effect can be reduced. Women in organizations often face barriers to advancements in the organizations in which they work (Helgeson, 2012, p. 459).
This session will consist of a discussion of the glass ceiling effects and a series of identifications of various job positions in order to test each employee’s perceptions of how positions are often gendered and labeled. In addition, each employee will have the opportunity to lead a blind mock interview of another employee for various job positions in order to decide who they should “hire.” Voices of each employee will be skewed with so that gender bias does not occur. This drill will allow each employee to judge the interviewees based on experience and skill set rather than gender. The purpose is to be an eye opener for who really qualifies for each employee. Rosa has brought the glass ceiling effect to attention by showing that she has potential and great experience but perhaps because of her gender and culture, she has remained in the same position for years without a promotion.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: http://www.feminist.org/research/business/ewb_glass.html. This website is from the Feminist Majority Foundation, which is all about advocacy and equality for women. This specific webpage looks at how women can be empowered at their place of work. More specifically, in-depth information on the glass ceiling effect that still remains in workplaces today.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are: Glass Ceiling? What Glass Ceiling? A Qualitative Study of How Women View the Glass Ceiling in Public Relations and Communication Management is about identifying the factors that contribute to the glass ceiling effect that exists for women in the workplace in addition to identifying some of the strategies that can be used to overcome this effect (Wrigley, 2002). And, Bosses’ Perceptions of Family-Work Conflict and Women’s Promotability: Glass Ceiling Effects if about how bosses’ perceive women to have more conflict in their work-family roles and thus, are less able to promote and hire women for higher status jobs (Hoobler, Wayne, & Lemmon, 2009).
The focus of Session Six will be on Gender and Culture within the workplace. The objective for this session is to identify and discuss cultural and diversity issues that relate to differences at work such as gender roles, workplace values, and definitions of each culture. For instance, one culture may put more emphasis on family and therefore, call out of work more for family issues. After this session, each employee will have a better understanding of where each culture is coming from regarding workplace decisions. This session will consist of a discussion of cultural differences, readings of actual happenings that have occurred relating to cultural discrimination within the workplace, and a sharing of opinions on this matter at the end of the session. Statistics will be provided about the cultures standings and positions within various workplaces. Kyle, because of his homosexual lifestyle, which can be considered a cultural difference in a sense, has brought attention to the discrimination that has been taking place within this HUGS center due to his lack of promotion although he has gained quite a bit of experience. Perhaps the person in charge of his promotion is discriminating against his homosexual lifestyle.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: https://www.iwda.org.au/gender-and-culture/we-all-bring-cultures-to-work-and-workplaces-have-cultures-too/. This website is from the International Women’s Development Agency, Inc., which is an agency based in Australia that focuses on women’s rights and equality in addition to bringing attention to cultural differences and similarities. This specific page on this website narrows down on the issues that workplaces face regarding gender and differences in cultures, including statistics and further resources.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are: Contextual Influence on Work and Family Roles: Gender, Culture, and Socioeconomic Factors is about the frameworks for international populations and cultures in addition to gender as it relates to workplace sensitivity (Perrone-McGovern, Wright, Howell, & Barnum, 2014). And, The More Things Change, the More they stay the same: Gender, Culture, and College Students’ Views about Work and Family is about how less acculturated students were more likely to uphold the traditional belief that women should stay home with the children rather than work, in addition to the idea that mothers’ views regarding employment greatly influenced children’s roles about female vs. male employment outside of the home (Goldberg, Kelly, Matthews, Kang, Li, & Sumaroka, 2012).
The focus of Session Seven will be Mental and Physical Health Relating to Gender in the workplace. The objective for this session is to bring awareness to the mental and physical health as it pertains to gender differences, at work. As always, the session will be begin with a discussion of how mental and physical health is seen by each gender and how it affects the workplace. Each employee will complete an online module that takes them through a series of scenarios as they pertain to mental and physical health in the workplace. Each scenario will consist of various decisions that must be made and problems that must be solved that relate back to gender, such as the how to approach someone who is suffering from depression. This exercise will allow each employee to delve deep into the aspects of health and confront any stereotypes or feelings that relate back to this. The employee, Isaac, has brought attention to this issue, specifically, due to his recent suffering of depression. The Human Resources Manager does not seem to be concerned with Isaac’s case because he perhaps does not believe that men can suffer from depression because they are supposed to be “masculine” and depression is not a “masculine” thing.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: https://osha.europa.eu/en/priority_groups/gender/index_html. This webpage stems from the European Agency for Safety and Health Work, which is about making the workplace safer for people of all ages, genders, cultures, etc. and to improve the working conditions in Europe. This specific page focuses on the female gender at work and how they are difference from men along the lines of health. In addition, there are further references and publications that are available on this topic.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are: The Relationships between Mothers’ Work Pathways and Physical and Mental Health is about how women tend to have better health when working full-time and continuously after the birth of their first children than women who didn’t work at all or worked part-time and/or not continuously (Frech, & Damaske, 2012). And, Its Peoples Whole Lives: Gender, Class, and Emotion Work of User Involvement in Mental Health Services is about how experience and display of emotion at work was different in men vs. women, which has contributed to the male-dominated workforce (Lewis, 2012).
The focus of Session Eight will be Relationships in the workplace. The objective for this session is to help employees realize that healthy and appropriate relationships/friendships can exist at work and to improve understanding and ways of relating to others at work. This session is also a way of summing up everything that has been learned in the previous sessions by applying the new found knowledge to an actual situation relating to relationships and friendships at work. In this session, a brief discussion followed by the creation of a presentation in groups of six will occur. Three women and three men will make up each group to create this presentation on gender issues at work and present it to two other workplaces or companies in their community. With this project, the employees will have a chance to demonstrate that they understand what they have learned in this training course in addition to showing that with healthy communication and interaction, women and men can work appropriately together in relationships as a team. Evelyn has brought to attention the issue of inappropriate and unhealthy relationships at this HUGS center. Other’s feel as if they can rely on her, but oftentimes place all of their specific work on her because it is considered “feminine” work. In addition, many of the men are inappropriate with her, showing these inappropriate and unhealthy relationships that exist.
A website that goes along with this training session for the employees is: http://smgworld.bu.edu/prw/. This website is all about having inappropriate and healthy relationships at work, as it is called Positive Relationships at Work. They have a variety of interests relating to this topic such as creating awareness of resources that exist, research and studies, and having face to face meetings about what can be done to better their mission on building more supportive and positive relationships at the workplace.
Two journal articles that the employees will be provided with regarding this training session are: Relationships between Telecommuting Workers and their Managers: An Exploratory Study is about the various relationships that may occur between women and men in those with telecommuting jobs (Reinsch, 1997). And, Between You and Me: Setting Work-Nonwork Boundaries in the Context of Workplace Relationships is about how work on the setting of boundaries between men and women in the workplace can in fact have a positive impact on the various types of relationships that occur in the workplace (Trefalt, 2013).
Final Training Report
After this training course, the 12 employees of this HUGS center will have gained the knowledge and the skills that will help them to be effective in their contributions to work regarding gender issues. Among these are included respect, awareness of gender issues, and a more equal, balanced, and comfortable working environment. After these training sessions are completed, there are six recommendations for employees to address at this place of work.
One of these changes is specific to the human resources department; specifically, the Human Resources Manager. Human resources personnel are in charge of increasing the effectiveness of the company and therefore, overseeing the well-being of the employees, which includes guidance. The change that is recommended is to reduce the gender stereotypes and sexism that is now occurring at HUGS. The Human Resources Manager will be made aware of these issue with this training program and now, be more conscientious of what is said and what types of actions are made. For instance, more guidance will be provided to employees for mental health issues regardless of gender. In addition, more monitoring of sexist attitudes of other employees will be enforced on a stricter basis so that the issue will be able to be addressed right away.
The second change is that an employee improvement meeting will be held once a month for one hour. This meeting with consist of all of the employees and 100% honesty. In this meeting, everyone will sit around in a circle and each individual will bring one thing to the table that they want to address or one improvement that they have noticed in the workplace. The primary focus of this meeting will be gender and cultural related issues, but may broaden out as time goes on as gender and cultural factors improve.
The third change is a recommendation to have a “three strikes and you’re out” policy. Several employees at this center at HUGS have reported uncomfortable feelings from other employees including sexist remarks, sexual/cultural harassment, and sexism in general. There are all adults working in this center and each employee will be trusted with being honest about their report. The basis of this change is to remove the employees who are not following the rules and who refuse to conform to the company’s policy about gender and cultural equality. This policy would state that each employee has the opportunity, if they feel they are being a victim of sexual/cultural harassment or sexism, to report the person who is the perpetrator. Basically, when one perpetrator gets three reports – whether they are by the same person or different people – their case will be looked into and possible termination or counseling may result. This recommendation shows that there is a zero tolerance for this type of behavior.
The fourth change is a recommendation to have each employees’ position looked at, in addition to their experience, pay rate, and satisfaction. Because certain employees were concerned about pay and promotions due to gender and/or culture, this issue is central in removing any discrimination based on gender and/or culture. The goal here is to have employees who enjoy their jobs, are satisfied, and feel as if they are being treated as equally as everyone else. For example, if an employee has been at this particular HUGS center for years without a raise and is making a significant amount less than someone of the opposite gender who has been there for the same amount of time, some type of action is recommended to be taken. With employee satisfaction comes better service to the clients at HUGS as well as more fulfilled and content employees who will be willing to give it their all.
The fifth change is a recommendation for further training sessions, but less intense as this present one. These further training sessions will consist of an online workshop once per month with various topics such as those that the training sessions included in this one. Each month will be featured a different topic that is related to a gender issue that is common to workplaces in general. Consistency and repetition of information is often the best way to learn information and to retain it. Therefore, further learning on these topics will continue to provide information and knowledge about these types of issues to the employees of HUGS.
The sixth and last change that is recommended for the company of HUGS to include in their program is to have anonymous counseling services available to their employees. Because HUGS includes not just this one center, but many centers all over the United States, many employees would have access to these free employee counseling services. These counseling services will be primarily related to gender issues, but also for the improvement of general mental health.
A company such as HUGS puts much time and effort into the care and comfort of the clients they serve. However, employee comfort, satisfaction, and happiness is oftentimes overlooked, with gender related factors being a major cause of this. This training session is geared towards each employee at this HUGS center and has the purpose of making aware the gender related issues that do exist here and at other companies. After this training session, employees will have a better understanding of these issues and be prepared to put their knowledge to improving their workplace and making it a more relaxed and appropriate atmosphere for all.
Adachi, T. (2013). Occupational gender stereotypes: Is the ratio of women to men a powerful
determinant? Psychological Reports, 112(2), 640-650.
Antecol, H., Jong, A., & Steinberger, M. (2008). The sexual orientation wage gap: The role of
occupational sorting and human capital. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 61(4), 518-543. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail?sid= e7401679-f8b2-44f3-8b48-fa77568a607f%40sessionmgr4001&vid=7&hid=4203& bd ata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=32546699
Bosson, J., Pinel, E., & Vandello, J. (2010). The emotional impact of ambivalent sexism:
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Fortin, N. M. (2008). The gender wage gap among young adults in the United States. Journal of
Human Resources, 43(4), 884-918. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy. umuc.edu/eds/detail?sid=30a3e7c4-0f7f-4042-9a5e-a5c82dd8145a%40sessionmgr4001& vid=5&hid=4203&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=35546368
Frech, A. & Damaske, S. (2012). The relationships between mothers’ work pathways and
physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 53(4), 396-412.
Goldberg, W. A., Kelly, E., Matthews, N. L., Kang, H., Li, W., & Sumaroka, M. (2012). The more
things change, the more they stay the same: Gender, culture, and college students’ views about work and family. Journal of Social Issues, 68(4), 814-837.
Good, J. & Rudman, L. (2010). When female applicants meet sexist interviewers: The costs of
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Helgeson, V. S. (2012). Psychology of gender (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Hoobler, J. M., Wayne, S. J., & Lemmon, G. (2009). Bosses’ perceptions of family-work conflict
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Konrad, A. M. & Gutek, B. A. (1986). Impact of work experience on attitudes toward sexual
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Lassonde, K. A. & O’Brien, E. J. (2013). Occupational stereotypes: Activation of male bias in a
gender-neutral world. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(2), 387-396.
Lewis, L. (2012). Its people’s whole lives: Gender, class, and emotion work of user involvement
in mental health services. Gender, Work, and Organization, 19(3), 276-305.
Perrone-McGovern, K. M., Wright, S. L., Howell, D. S., & Barnum, E. L. (2014). Contextual
influences on work and family roles: Gender, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Career
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exploratory study. Journal of Business Communication, 34(4), 343-369. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail?sid=27e6f87f-ae4d-42e9-9249-a80f57790d73%40sessionmgr4003&vid=3&hid=4203&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=9711100256
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Final Project: Training Program Design Project
Purpose: This activity assesses your comprehension of course materials.
Guidelines: You have been hired to consult at a large corporation on these two projects:
1. Design a training course to help employees deal with gender issues at work.
2. Write a report reflecting how your course will improve understanding and ways of relating among employees.
· culture and history: describe cultural and historical influences on conceptions of gender and other forms of diversity
· gender differences: discuss research findings on gender differences and similarities in aggression, achievement, and communication.
· relationships: identify gender issues in friendships and romantic relationships
· gender expectations: explain the impact of gender, gender role expectations, and gender stereotypes on work roles and physical and mental health
Your tasks will proceed as follows:
Problem areas: Men and women at the corporation have gathered to discuss their observations, experiences, and concerns regarding gender relations at work. The participants in your training course represent management at all levels as well as diverse administrative, technical, and intern personnel.
During your opening session, you ask participants to introduce themselves and to state the problems they have noticed at work. Your participants may cite a general problem such as pay and power differences, and may also state their experiences of gender identification.
Twelve participants: Imagine 12 diverse individuals who have elected to attend your training. Give each individual a name and identify him or her in your report with details including age, gender, ethnicity, and position (power level) at the corporation. Each participant’s identity descriptor should include a statement of the problems he or she has perceived at work. State the problems as if you are quoting the participant. Because this is an imaginary training group, you must place yourself in the shoes of each of your 12 participants and explain the problem from each unique perspective.
Training program: In response to the problems the participants have presented, create an eight-part course. Your course sessions are designed to help participants better understand gender issues.
For each of the eight sessions, state one course learning objective, one Web site, and one article that you will use for that session. Refer to at least one of the participants’ problems that will be addressed in the session. For each session, do the following:
· Give the session title (focus of the session).
· State the session’s objective or objectives.
· State the participant problem(s) you will address in this specific session.
· Name one or more peer review journal articles and/or module resources relevant to the issues brought up by the training participants. Include resources in the course modules and a relevant Web site.
· Describe the activity for the session. We learn from each other when we listen and reflect on the experiences of others. Create and describe an activity that will promote discussion among your participants.
Final training report: Your goal for the training program is for participants to gain the knowledge and skills they need to return to work and effectively contribute to an environment that promotes respect, gender awareness, and efforts to balance power among men and women. Describe four to six specific changes you will recommend to the corporate leaders that address the concerns presented by your training participants.
This project is worth a maximum of 20 points. Your grade will be based on clarity and details specific to gender issues. The final project is worth 26 percent of your overall grade, so it is vital that you do well on this assignment.
Twelve participants: State problems relevant to gender concerns at the corporation from the viewpoint of 12 participants who are taking your training (6 points).
Training program with eight sessions: Describe each session (6 points).
Final training report: Include four to six recommendations for the corporation (6 points).
Journal articles and Web sites: List journal article(s) and Web site(s) relevant to the project. Include citations and references formatted to conform to APA guidelines (2 points).
Grading Rubric for FINAL PROJECT
Training Course with Eight Session
Journal Articles and Websites
13 April 2022
Rhetoric & Composition
Black Women Dying at the Hands of White Doctors While Giving Birth
· Davis, Dána-Ain. “Obstetric racism: the racial politics of pregnancy, labor, and birthing.” Medical Anthropology 38.7 (2019): 560-573.
The author analyzes various birth stories in the article, as told by black native women in the United States. In the stories that the author analyzes, the women narrated the kind of racism they encountered while being attended to by the healthcare practitioners during labor and delivery. The article focuses on obstetric violence and racism against black women as a threat to birth outcomes. In one of the stories, as narrated by Josie, one of the nursing staff in a birthing facility, the author analyzes the case of Mitchelle, a black woman, being injected with Pitocin, an artificial hormone to induce contractions (P2). The nurse, Josie’s colleague, who injected Mitchelle with Pitocin, claimed that her cervix was open by 5 centimeters. Still, in the real sense, according to another Josie (the narrator), Mitchelle’s cervix was open close to 8 centimeters, which according to the midwife, training could not have required the injection of an artificial hormone (P2). The author argues that, by inducing Mitchelle’s contractions, the nursing staff denied Mitchelle a normal birthing experience that other clients get.
Additionally, Mitchelle was only allowed to enter the labor room with only one person, unlike the white woman who had given birth in the same facility and was allowed to enter the room with six people. Josie argues that Mitchelle was discriminated against further when she was told not to push, even though she had the urge to do so. The doctors claimed that Mitchelle had a cord prolapse (A scenario whereby the umbilical cord is descended and the baby’s head is high in the birth canal). However, the narrator of this experience, Josie, a nursing staff, argues that claims made by doctors could not be true because Mitchelle’s water had not broken; therefore, it could be very unlikely that she had a cord prolapse. The author argues that Mitchelle was just one of the Black women undergoing a very adverse birth experience. Conclusively, the author argues that obstetric racism haunts black women’s experience in pregnancies, labor, and birth.
· Villarosa, Linda. “Why America’s black mothers and babies are in a life-or-death crisis.” The New York Times Magazine 11 (2018).
The author argues that the black infant mortality, death, and near-death encounters by black mothers are still a crisis in the United States (P6). The rate of maternal mortality is worse than it was two decades ago. However, the author argues that, according to the current CDC reports, the maternal mortality rate among black women is three times more likely to die from pregnancy-related complications than of white counterparts (P6). The author attributes the difference in maternal mortality rates between black women and white women to the existing racial disparities. The author argues that the states have put little attention to the gaps in maternal mortality rates, with few states reviewing pregnancy-related deaths (P6).
Additionally, the author argues that black women are at the receiving of maternal dates due to systemic racism, which subjects them to psychosocial stress, one of the leading causes of pregnancy-related complications like hypertension (P7). Equally, the author argues that societal racism, predominantly racial discrimination that black women experience in the healthcare systems, like dismissing genuine symptoms and concerns, contributes to poor birth outcomes among black women (P7). Additionally, the author suggests that it is the people’s responsibility to discuss structural racism, which threatens black women’s lives.
Davis, Dána-Ain. “Obstetric racism: the racial politics of pregnancy, labor, and birthing.” Medical Anthropology 38.7 (2019): 560-573.
Villarosa, Linda. “Why America’s black mothers and babies are in a life-or-death crisis.” The New York Times Magazine 11 (2018). (pdf)
ASSIGNMENT 5.3: Outline of Your Research Paper
Write a two-page formal outline for your final research paper. Look at the example outline
below, and keep in mind that formal outlines are very detailed and use all complete
(Also note that you will need to resubmit a formal outline with your final paper, so it may
be revised as you continue your research).
Outline (Give a Title)
Thesis: The federal government should do more to help the homeless towards
I. Homelessness is a major problem in the United States.
A. Experts disagree about the number of Americans who are homeless.
B. Experts agree that the number of homeless, particularly homeless
families, is growing.
II. Finding ways to help the homeless is difficult.
A. Even if the homeless find shelter, they still often wander the street.
1. Some homeless people are addicted to alcohol or drugs.
2. Some have serious psychiatric problems.
3. Others lack basic survival skills.
B. This is why Comprehensive programs are needed to address the
complex problems that many homeless people have.
III. The opposition would also state that there are already assistance programs
that provide training in everyday survival skills.
A. Homes for the Homeless offers workshops on everything from
nutrition to interview techniques.
B. Project Hope shows clients how to apply for food stamps and other
benefits to which they are entitled.
C. House of Hope provides instruction in household budgeting and home
D. These are great programs, but the government needs to offer more
assistance in the training of everyday survival skills because the
problem of homelessness is still growing.
IV. The opposition would state that some broad assistance programs help the
homeless get a job.
A. Many of the homeless have no jobs or have never worked for more
than six months.
B. CANP provides training in resume writing and interviewing.
C. CANP’s job training has a high success rate.
D. Yet, the government still needs to offer more assistance to help the
homeless get a job because these programs aren’t doing enough.
V. The opposition would also state that some programs offer broad assistance to
A. Project Renewal and Pine Street Inn offer substance-abuse programs.
B. Lenox Hill Neighborhood House and CANP also offer psychological
C. Still, the government needs to offer more assistance to help solve these
VI. The federal government should help such broad based-assistance programs.
A. CANP’s funding has slipped.
B. Project Hope doesn’t have the resources needed to meet the growing
demands of its services.
VII. The government should also raise the minimum wage.
A. Some of the homeless have jobs, but their low incomes put most
housing out of their reach.
B. The last two decades have seen a dramatic drop in minimum wage
VIII. A lack of affordable housing is at the heart of the homeless problem.
A. One magazine argued that people’s deep disturbances are not the
unavailability of inexpensive housing—are at the heart of the homeless
B. Numerous studies and many experts show that the recent trends in
housing are the culprit.
IX. The federal government should finance more low-cost housing.
A. Affordable private housing is almost non-existent.
B. Public Housing can accommodate a small percentage of those seeking
from high costs in the private housing market.
1. The federal government has cut funding of public housing and
2. Cities have slashed funding for the construction of shelters.
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