For each quotation, write a paraphrase. Use in-text citations.
Four years ago, Stacy Snyder, then a 25-year-old teacher in training at Conestoga Valley High School in Lancaster, Pa., posted a photo on her MySpace page that showed her at a party wearing a pirate hat and drinking from a plastic cup, with the caption â€œDrunken Pirate.â€ After discovering the page, her supervisor at the high school told her the photo was â€œunprofessional,â€ and the dean of Millersville University School of Education, where Snyder was enrolled, said she was promoting drinking in virtual view of her under-age students. As a result, days before Snyderâ€™s scheduled graduation, the university denied her a teaching degree. Snyder sued, arguing that the university had violated her First Amendment rights by penalizing her for her (perfectly legal) after-hours behavior. But in 2008, a federal district judge rejected the claim, saying that because Snyder was a public employee whose photo didnâ€™t relate to matters of public concern, her â€œDrunken Pirateâ€ post was not protected speech. â€“ Jeffrey Rosen, â€œThe Web Means the End of Forgettingâ€
Paraphrase: Stacey Snyder was training to be a teacher. However, she was not allowed to graduate because she posted a picture of herself wearing a pirate hat and holding a cup; the caption for the picture said â€œDrunken Pirate.â€ The school said that this picture encouraged her underage students to drink, and, therefore, refused to let her graduate. She did try to sue the school on constitutional grounds, but the judge ruled against her (Rosen).
Paraphrase the following:
1. A 26-year-old Manhattan woman told The New York Times that she was afraid of being tagged in online photos because it might reveal that she wears only two outfits when out on the town â€” a Lynyrd Skynyrd T-shirt or a basic black dress. â€œYou have movie-star issues,â€ she said, â€œand youâ€™re just a person.â€ â€“ Jeffrey Rosen, â€œThe Web Means the End of Forgettingâ€.
2. Weâ€™ve known for years that the Web allows for unprecedented voyeurism, exhibitionism and inadvertent indiscretion, but we are only beginning to understand the costs of an age in which so much of what we say, and of what others say about us, goes into our permanent â€” and public â€” digital files. The fact that the Internet never seems to forget is threatening, at an almost existential level, our ability to control our identities; to preserve the option of reinventing ourselves and starting anew; to overcome our checkered pasts. â€“ Jeffrey Rosen, â€œThe Web Means the End of Forgettingâ€
3. The Internet promises to have particularly far-reaching effects on cognition. In a paper published in 1936, the British mathematician Alan Turing proved that a digital computer, which at the time existed only as a theoretical machine, could be programmed to perform the function of any other information-processing device. And thatâ€™s what weâ€™re seeing today. The Internet, an immeasurably powerful computing system, is subsuming most of our other intellectual technologies. Itâ€™s becoming our map and our clock, our printing press and our typewriter, our calculator and our telephone, and our radio and TV. â€“ Nicholas Carr, â€œIs Google Making Is Stupid?â€
4.Yet another problem with government gathering and use of personal data is distortion. Although personal information can reveal quite a lot about people’s personalities and activities, it often fails to reflect the whole person. It can paint a distorted picture, especially since records are reductiveâ€”they often capture information in a standardized format with many details omitted. For example, suppose government officials learn that a person has bought a number of books on how to manufacture methamphetamine. That information makes them suspect that he’s building a meth lab. What is missing from the records is the full story: The person is writing a novel about a character who makes meth. When he bought the books, he didn’t consider how suspicious the purchase might appear to government officials, and his records didn’t reveal the reason for the purchases. Should he have to worry about government scrutiny of all his purchases and actions? Should he have to be concerned that he’ll wind up on a suspicious-persons list? Even if he isn’t doing anything wrong, he may want to keep his records away from government officials who might make faulty inferences from them. He might not want to have to worry about how everything he does will be perceived by officials nervously monitoring for criminal activity. He might not want to have a computer flag him as suspicious because he has an unusual pattern of behavior. â€“ Daniel Solove, â€œWhy Privacy Matters…â€